Brahmanbaria District

Thana & Upazila :

Bancharampur | Brahmanbaria Sadar | Nasirnagar | Nabinagar | Akhaura | Kasba |

Map :

Bancharampur | Brahmanbaria Sadar | Nasirnagar | Nabinagar | Akhaura | Kasba |

Backround: Brahmanbaria was a part of Samatata Janapada of the ancient Bengal. The first and temporary capital of Isha khan was at Sarail 10 km on the north of Brahmanbaria Town.

Location: Brahmanbaria District (Chittagong division) is surrounded on the north by Kishrigonj and Habiganj district ,on the south by Comilla district , on the east by Habiganj district and on the west by Tripura State of India and Meghna river, Kishoreganj, Narsindi and Narayanganj districts

Area: 1927.11 sq km,

Physical Features: The district is a lowlying land having small hills and hillocks of red soil.

Temperature: Annual highest average temperature 34.3?C and lowest 12.7?C; Annual total rain fall is 2551 mm.

Rivers & Beel : Main rivers are Meghna and Titas, Buri and Haora; Mehedi and Akashi haors are notable.

Brahmanbaria Town : It consists of 12 wards and 46 mahallas. The area of the town is 30.82 sq km. It has a population of 131334; male 51.34%, female 48.66%. Literacy rate among the town people is 52.3%. Brahmanbaria town began to grow from the nineteenth century. The town was turned into a municipality in 1869. The tomb of Hazrat Syed Kazi Mahmud Shah (R) is located at Kazipara of the town. During the invasion of Munipur by the British in 1824. Brahmanbaria town was their military headquarters. The main business centres of the town are Ananda Bazar and Tanbazar. Other notable areas of the town are Jagatbazar, Mahabedab Patti, Kalaishreepara, Madhyapara, Kazipara and Kandhipara.

Cultural Activities: Brahmanbaria town has a rich tradition of the cultivation of art, education and culture. It is often figuralily called the cultural capital of Bangladesh.

To the field of literature the contributions of Adyta Mallavarman, Jotirindra Nandi, Abdul Kadir and Al Mahmud are remarkable.

The Town also represents a rich tradition of the cultivation of music. Ustad Ayet Ali Khan established the Alauddin Music College in 1957 and Shilpacharya Joinul Abedin established the Alauddin Sangitayan in 1975. Those who contributed to the development of music in Brahmanbaria town mention may be made of Ustad Fakir (Tapas) Aftab Uddin Khan, Ustad Alauddin Khan, Ustad Ayet Ali Khan, Ustad Ali Akbor Khan, Ustad Bahadur Hussain Khan, Ustad Abed Hussain Khan, Ustad Khadem Hussain Khan, Ustad Raja Hussain Khan, Amar Paul, Ustad Khurshid Khan, Ustad Subal Das and Ustad Afjalur Rahman.

Administration : Brahmanbaria district, which was included in Comilla district (formerly Tipera district) was established in 1984. Before 1830 the Sarail Pargana was a part of Mymensingh district. The district has 4 municipalities, 39 wards, 97 mahallas, 8 upazilas, 98 union parishads, 1081 mouzas and 1329 villages.

Upazila:The upazilas are Banchharampur, Kasba, Nabinagar,Nabiganj, Nasirnagar,Brahmanbaria Sadar , Sarail, Ashuganj and Akhaura.

Parliamentary seats:There are six Parliamentary seats in Brahmanbaria District.

Archaeological heritage and relics: Arphail Sagardighi Mosque and Twin Graves (sixteenth century, Sarail), Arphannesa Mosque (1662, Sarail), Bhadurghar Shahi Mosque (1084 AH), Ulchapara Mosque (sixteenth century), tomb of Kalla Shahid (R, Akhaura), Kalbhairab Mandir (Brahmanbaria), Sree Sree Anandamoye Ashram (seventeenth century) at Kasba, Satidaha Mandir (Biddakut), Shiva Mandir (Natghar), Sarvadharma Samanya Mandir (Kalikachha), Jagannath Mandir (Nasirnagar), Bishnu Statue (Baghaura), BUDDHIST VIHARAs (Devgram), Kailaghar Jangal (Kasba), Hatir Pool (elephant bridge) at Baraiura, Zamindar Bari of Haripur, Basudeva Statue (Kalikachha), Nabinagar Math, Haraspur Zamindar Bari, Brahmanbaria Archives and Museum, Anderson Memorial (Kautali).

Historical events: When the Swadeshi Movement began in the wake of the partition of Bengal (1905), revolutionary Ullaskar Datta (Aviram) was convicted for throwing bomb explosion and was deported to the Andamans. On 14 December 1931 Suniti Chowdhury, Shanti Ghosh and Gopal Deb killed the then District magistrate CCB Stevens at his residence by gun shot. During the Peasant Movement in 1930 Congress leader Abdul Hakim asked the peasant to stop payment of taxes. During the no-rent movement four civilians were killed when the British soldiers indiscriminately fired on civilians. During the War of Liberation Bir Srestha Mohammad Mostafa Kamal was killed in an encounter at Daruin of Akhaura.

Marks of the War of Liberation: Mass graves and slaughter places: Places adjacent to Pairtala Railway Bridge, west side of Judge Court, Kautali Wapda Office, west side of Asuganj Silo, west bank of Gangasagar Dighi (Akhaura), Asuganj IGMN Steamer Ghat, Lalpur Bazar, Shahbajpur Titas Bridge, Lakshmipur (Kasba), Kella Pathar (Kasba); memorial monuments: Shahid Smriti Shaudha (Faruki Park), Shaudha Hiranmaya (Kautali), Shahid Samadi Complex, Bijoy Statue (Asuganj), playground of Sarail Degree College; grave yard of Bir Shreshta Mustafa Kamal (Mogra).

Population: 2365880; male 49.49%, female 50.51%; Muslim 90.73%, Hindu 9.07%, Buddhist 0.05%, Christian 0.04% and others 0.11%.

Religious institutions: Mosque 1987, temple 134, church 2, tomb 30 and sacred places 5. Noted religious institutions: Brahmanbaria Jami Mosque, Hatkhola Jami Mosque and Sagardighi Mosque at Sarail, Registry Office Jami Mosque and Shah Saheb Bari Jami Mosque at Nabinagar, Sree Sree Harisava Mandir (Nabinagar), Kalbhairav Mandir (Brahmanbaria), Brahmanbaria Baptist Church, tombs of Kutub Shah, Kala Shah and Ayet Shah (Sarail), tomb of Hazrat Kalla Shahid (Akhaura) and Dayamoye Asram (Sarail).

Literacy: Literacy and educational institutions Average literacy 26.6%; male 32.7% and female 20.3%.

Educational institutions: government college 2, non-government college 27, homeopath college 1, law college 1, government high school 7, non-government high school 144, junior high school 44, madrasa 78, government primary school 690, non-government primary school 323, nursing institute 1, primary training institute 1, deaf and damp school 1, blind school 1, industrial school 1, vocational training institute 2, textile engineering and technology school 1, community school 4, music school 4 and satellite school 14.

Noted educational institution: Brahmanbaria Government College (1948), Brahmanbaria Annada Government High School (1875), Government Model Girl's High School (1936), Ramkanai Jamia Islamia Younusia Madrasa (1334 AH), Debgram Pilot High School (1905, Akhaura), Bangladesh Railway Government High School (1920), Kasba Government High School (1899), Kuti Atalbihari High School (1918), Nabinagar Pilot High School (1896), Phandauk PR High School (1938, Nasirnagar), Sarail Annada Government High School (1893), Chunta AC Academy (Sarail).

Locally published newspapers and periodicals: Dailiy Brahmanbaria (1992), Daily Pratibedan (1993), Daily Ajker Halchal (1997), Daily Titas Kanth (1999), Daily Samatat Barta (2000), Daily Dindarpan (2000); Weekly Titas, Weekly Penbridg (1999), Fortnightly Charch (1997); Periodicals- Sahitya Academy Patrika, Nasirnagar Barta, Sarail Barta, Muktaprabaha; extinct- Bangabandhu (1875, Kalikachha), Usha (1893), Hira (1894), Sudhakar (nineteenth century), Santan (1913), Palli Pradip (1920, Kalikachha), Al Bushra (1921), Prajabandhu (1920), Chunta Prakash (1926), Tripura Prakash (1301 BS), Rayat Bandhu (1929, Kalikachha), Jayanti (nineteenth century), Sebak (1957), Parichaya (1964), Samaj (1966), Pari (1966), Vhela (1967), Tridhara (1967), Pratinidhi (1970), Pratibedan (1979), Renessa (1988), Belaseshe (1992, Sarail).

Cultural organisations: Club 89, public library 9, cinema hall 16, womem's organisation 80, community centre 8, Shilpakala Academy 1, Shishu Academy 1, Museum 1, theatre stage 1, theatre group 8, opera party (extinct) 20, circus party 1, puppet-show party 10, literary society 20, cooperative society 832 and playground 85.

Noted cultural organisations: BGFC Officers' Club, Brahmanbaria Public Library, Brahmanbaria Archives Museum, Town Hall (Ustad Alauddin Khan Municipal Auditorium), Royal Star Circus, Royal Bina Opera, Sahitya Academy; extinct- Lalmohan Library, Swashwata Brahmo-Samaj, Kalyan Sangha (revolutionary organisation), Pabitra Sangha and Sarail-Kalikaschha Club.

Main occupations: Agriculture 44.79%, agricultural labourer 15.82%, wage labourer 3.13%, commerce 12.26%, service 6.8%, fishing 2.02% and transport 1.85%, weaving 2.39% and others 10.94%.

Land Situation: Total cultivable land 152280 hectares; fallow land 700 hectares; single crop 28.38%, double crop 53.95% and treble crop land 17.67%; land under irrigation 55.31%. Land control Among the peasants 11% are landless, 61% small, 24% intermediate and 4% rich; cultivable land per head 0.07 hectare. Value of land The market value of the land of the first grade is 7500 Taka per 0.01 hectare.

Main crops: Paddy, jute, wheat, mustard seed, potato, onion, garlic, chilli, pulses, brinjal, kakrol and patal. Kakrol produced in Mukundopur of this district deserves special mention.

Extinct or nearly extinct crops Linseed, sesame, tobacco, Chaplaish and Kataktara varieties of paddy, arahar and kaun.

Main fruits: Mango, jackfruit, black berry, papaya, coconut, guava, olive, lemon, litchi, bilimbi and banana.

Fisheries, dairies, poultries Poultry 83, fishery 64, dairy 61, hatchery 43, nursery 17 and artificial breeding centre 1.

Communication facilities: Roads: pucca 266 km, semi pucca 86 km and mud road 1629 km; waterways 131 nautical mile; railways 71km.

Traditional transport Palanquin, horse carriage and bullock cart. These means of transport are either extinct or nearly extinct.

Mill & Factory: Manufactories Fertiliser factory, flour mill, rice mill, ice factory, oil mill, saw mill, welding, etc.

Cottage industries: Brahmanbaria district is famous for the production of cotton fabrics. In the nineteenth century Tanjeb, fine quality Muslin used to be produced in Sarail. Hats, made of cane, are being produced at Radhika from the British period. Since Brahmanbaria has a rich tradition of boat race, boats are being made at Champanagar.

Other cottage industries include weaving, such bamboo work, cane work, handicraft, goldsmith, blacksmith, wood work, potteries and tailoring.

Main hats, bazars and fairs: Total number of hats and bazars are 245, most noted of which Ananda Bazar, Asuganj, Chandura, Lalpur, Panishwar, Akhaura, Magra, Banchharampur, Dariar Char, Masimnagar, Kasba, Muslimganj, Gopinathpur, Nabinagar, Bhangura, Shibpur, Phandauk, Nasirnagar and Sarail; fair- 20 most noted of which are Kendua Mela, Shiva Bari Mouza Mela (Akhaura), Chaumohoni Mela (Kasba), Radhanagar Baishaki Mela (Nabinagar) and Baruni Mela of Ghazi and Kalu (Sarail).

Mineral resources: Natural gas; gas field 3 (Titas Gas, Meghna Gas Field and Saldandi Gas Field).

Main exports: Jute, paddy, mustard seed, vegetables, cotton fabrics, handicrafts, natural gas and leather.

NGO activities : NGOs are ASA, BRAC, CARE, Grameen Bank, Proshika, Save the Children, Social Marketing Company, IDE, VDC, Ujjiban Kendra, Gana Kalyan Kendra.

Health centres: Zila Sadar Hospital 1, upazila health complex 8, health and family planning centre 79, maternity and child welfare centre 2, TB hospital 1, diabetics hospital 1, police hospital 1, prison hospital 1, mission hospital 1, palli health centre 2, satellite clinic 13.