Comilla District

Thana & Upazila :

Barura | Brahmanpara | Burichang | Chandina | Chauddagram | Comilla Sadar | Daudkandi | Debidwar | Homna | Laksham | Muradnagar | Nangalkot |

Map :

Barura | Brahmanpara | Burichang | Chandina | Chauddagram | Comilla Sadar | Daudkandi | Debidwar | Homna | Laksham | Muradnagar | Nangalkot |

Location: Comilla District (Chittagong division) is surrounded by Brahmanbaria and Narayanganj districts on the north, Noakhali and Feni districts on the south, Tripura (state of India) on the east, Munshiganj and Chandpur districts on the west. 

Area: 3085.17 sq km

Temperature: Annual average temperature maximum 34.3?C, minimum 12.7?C; annual rainfall 2551 mm. 

Rivers: Main rivers are Meghna,Gumti, and Dakatia. 

Comilla Town: It stands on the bank of the Gumti river. It consists of 18 wards and 46 mahallas. It has an area of 11.47 sq km and a population of 168378; male 52.56%, female 47.44%. Literacy rate among the town people is 60.3%. 

In the suburb there exists the Commonwealth War Cemetery Memorials, Muktajuddha Museum at Mainamati Cantonment and Bangladesh Academy for Rural Rural Development Mainamati Museum, Comilla Cadet College at Courtbari. Comilla Town is blessed with the memories of national poet Kazi Nazrul Islam. Nazrul Islam married twice in life, one at Daulatpur of Muradnagar upazila of the district and the other at Comilla Town. Those places have been marked with memorial plates. Poet Rabindranath Tagore visited Comilla twice. Ustad Muhammad Hussain, Fazle Nizami and Kulendu Das have enriched the cultural heritage of the town. Ustad Ayet Ali Khan established a musical institute here.

Administration: The Comilla region was once under ancient Samatat and was joined with Tripura State. This district came under the reign of the kings of the Harikela in the ninth century AD. Lalmai Mainamati was ruled by Deva dynasty (eighth century AD), and Chandra dynasty (during tenth and mid eleventh century AD). It came under the rule of East India Company in 1765. This district was established as Tripura district in 1790. It was renamed Comilla in 1960. Chandpur and Brahmanbaria subdivisions of this district were transformed into districts in 1984. Comilla district has 5 municipalities, 54 wards, 148 mahallas, 12 upazilas, 1 Thana, 180 union parishads, 2704 mouzas and 3624 villages. 

Upazila & Municipalities :The upazilas are Comilla Sadar, Barura, Chandina , Daudkandi, Laksam, Brahmanpara, Burichang, Chauddagram,Debidwer, Homna, Muradnagar, and Nanggalkot; the municipalities are Comilla Sadar, Barura, Chandina, Daudkandi and Laksham. 

Archaeological heritage and relics: Marks of rich ancient civilization have been found in Lalmai Mainamati hills. In these hills there are plenty of archaeological sites including Shalvan Vihara, Kutila Mura, Charandra Mura, Rupban Mura, Itakhola Mura, Satera Ratna Mura, Ranir Banglar Pahar, Ananda Bazar Palaces, palaces of Bhoj King, Chandi Mura, etc. Various archaeological relics including images and metalled utensils discovered from these viharas, muras and palaces are now preserved in the Mainamati Museum. Other archaeological heritage and relics include Saptaratna Mandir (Jagannath Mandir), Shah Suja Mosque, Dharmasagar, Chandimata Mandir (on the top of Lalmai Hill of Barura), Chandala Shiva Mandir (Brahmanpara, eighteenth century), Saitshala Jami Mosque (Brahmanpara, 1719), Mazars of Panch Pir (five saints) at Shashidal (Brahmanpara, 1815), Harimangal Math (Brahmanpara, 1822), Ramnagar elongated Math (Brahmanpara, 1705), Saitshala Rammahan Mandir (Brahmanpara, 1805), Hasnabad Math and Hatiabhanga Fort (Daudkandi).

Historical Events: Peasants Movement against the king of Tripura in 1764 under the leadership of Samsher Gazi is a notable historical event. Communal tension spread over Comilla when a Muslim was shot at Comilla town during the Partition of Bengal  in 1905. During the preparation of a countrywide Hartal on 21 November 1921, protesting the visit of India by Prince of Wales, Kazi Nazrul Islam composed patriotic songs and tried to awaken the town people. During this time Avay Ashram, as a revolutionary institution, played significant role. Poet Rabindranath Tagore and Mahatma Gandhi visited Comilla at that time. In 1931, the British Gurkha soldiers fired indiscriminately and killed four persons of village Mohini of Chauddagram upazila when about four thousand peasants of this village revolted against paying land revenue. In a huge peasant gathering the police fired at Hasnabad of Laksham Upazila in 1932. Two persons were killed and many wounded in this firing. 

Marks of the War of Liberation: Mass killing site: 5, Laksham, Comilla Cantonment, Homna, Beltali and Rasulpur; mass graves at Betiara, Muzaffarganj, Nagaripara, Cantonment, Krishnapur, Dhananjay, Dilabad and Laksham Bidi Factory; memorials at Comilla Victoria College, Betiara, Police Line, Cantonment, Laksham, Polytechnic Institution and Haratali.

Population: 4586879; male 49.33%, female 50.61%; Muslim 93.85%, Hindu 5.9%, Buddhist 0.13%, Christian 0.03% and others 0.09%. Ethnic nationals: Tipra and Rishi (characteristically Mongalite), on the border of Tripura State. 

Religious institutions: Mosque 5802, temple 178, church 2 and buddhist vihara 5, most noted Shahsuja Mosque, Tomb of Hazrat Ainuddin Shah, Chandi Mura (Hindu sacred place). 

Literacy: Average literacy 33.1%; male 40.2% and female 26%. 

Educational institutions: University college 4, private university 1, medical college 1, teacher's training college 2, law college 1, government college 11, non-government college 56, polytechnic institute 1, para medical institute 1, homeopath college 1, cooperative college 1, government commerce college 1, government high school 9, non-government high school 444, junior high school 66, government primary school 1334, non-government primary school 799, survey institute 1, primary education training institute 1, nursing training centre 1, blind and deaf school 1. 

Noted educational institutions: Comilla Victoria University College (1899), Comilla Zila School (1837), Comilla High School (1842), Fazilatunnesa Government Girls' High School (1873), Comilla Cadet College, Shashidal Union High School (1890), Chandana K B High School (1920), Madhavpur Sheikhlal High School (1911), Burichang Ananda Pilot High School (1925), Chandina Pilot High School (1916), Chauddagram H J Pilot High School (1921), Eliotganj R B High School (1908), Raipur K C High School (1912), Barpara Girls' High School (1919), Debidwar Reazuddin High School (1918), Homna Pilot High School (1929), Bhangara High School (1887), Ramchandrapur High School (1918), Sreekail College (1942).

Cultural organisations: Club 4, museum 2, theatre group 4, theatre stage 2, cultural group 4, literary society 10, recitation organisation 6. 

Newspaper: Locally published newspapers and periodicals Daily Rupasi Bangla (1972), Weekly Amod (1955), Abibhadan (1994), Natunpatra, Samayatra (1967), Daily Comilla Batra, Daily Bangladesh Sangbad, Monthly Manan, Pathakbatra, Shiranam, Weekly Laksham Batra, Weelky Nirakkhar. Extinct: Tripura Patrika (1876), Tripura (1932), Weekly Hindu (1941), Tripura Guide (1934), Natun Alo, Pratinidhi, Tripura Hitoshi (1883), Rayatbandhu (1921), Niamat (1940), Sabuj Bangla, Tripura Gyan Prakashani (1860), Tripura Bandhav (1942), Kathak (1983), Rangdhanu, Najat, Abahaman, Daradi (1938), Yogisammalani (1912), Comilla Sahitya Parishad Patrika (1985), Mainamati (1965), Purbasha, Shikhak Sruida, Alo, Chirkut (1974), Robi (1924), Tarun (1938), Samskriti (1940), Jagriti (1951), Apan and Parichaya. 

Occupation: Main occupations Agriculture 43.28%, commerce 11.6%, service 10.78%, transport 3.36%, agricultural labourer 15.89%, wage labourer 2.46%, construction 1.03%, and others 11.6%. 

Land Property: Total cultivable land 243596.93 hectares; single crop 18.05%, double crop 63.99% and treble crop land 17.96%.

Land control Among the peasants 30% are landless, 46% small, 20% intermediate and 4% rich. Value of land The market value of the land of the first grade is 13500 Taka per 0.01 hectare. 

Crops: Main crops Paddy, jute, wheat, mustard seed, brinjal. Extinct or nearly extinct crops Linseed, sesame, sweet potato, china and kaun. 

Main fruits: Mango, jackfruit, banana, coconut, palm, guava and blackberry. 

Fisheries, dairies, poultries: Dairy 28, poultry 109, fishery 27, hatchery 69, nursery 200. 

Communication facilities: Roads pucca 1219 km, mud road 587 km; railways 108 km; airport 1. 

Traditional transport Palanquin, horse carriage, bullock cart, dhuri and bhari. These means of transport are either extinct or nearly extinct. 

Mill & Factory : Manufactories In the second half of the eighteenth century East India Company established a large cotton mill at Charpata on the south of the district. Cotton cloths were exported to other districts in those days. At present Comilla Khaddar is famous in the country. Manufactories include textile mills: Halima Textile Mills; iron and steel factory: Mozaher Cooperative Mills, Radharani Manufacturing Works, Qayum Steel Mills Ltd.; pharmaceuticals- Skylab, Comilla Ayurvedic Pharmacy, Sharma Chemical (extinct), Arco Industry.

Cottage industries: Comilla is noted for potteries of Bijoypur. Other cottage industries include bamboo and cane works, Shital Pati, Hooka, and madur (mat) made of murta tree. 

Hat & Bazar: Main hats, bazars and fairs Most noted hats, bazars and fairs (Mela) are Dulalpur, Companyganj, Rajganj, Bibir Bazar, Daulatganj, Chandina, Gunabati Bazar, Homna, Ramchandrapur, Bangshanagar, Chauddagram, Govindapur, Monipur, Chandimura, Madhavpur, Mohanpur, Rasulpur, Syedpur, Madhaya, Eliotganj, Baroikandi, Changini Bazar, Chawkbazar, Mainamati Mela, Punra Mela, Chandala Mela, Baira Mela, Betakhali Mela. 

Main exports:  Natural gas, khaddar cloth, coconut, dry chilly, dry fish, egg, poultries and potteries. Mineral resources natural gas (Bakharabad in Sreekail). 

NGO activities: NGOs are Brac, CARE, ASA,Proshika, Grameen Bank, Sheba, PAGES,ADAB 

Health Centres: Medical college hospital 1, zila sadar hospital 1, police hospital 1, district hospital 1, upazila health complex 12, military hospital 1, diabetic hospital 1, tuberculosis hospital 1, modern hospital 2, charitable dispensary 26, maternity and child welfare centre 2, rural health centre 2, leprosy hospital 1.