Cox's Bazar District
Thana & Upazila :
Chakaria | Coxs Bazar | Kutubdia | Maheshkhali | Ramu | Teknaf | Ukhia |
Chakaria | Coxs Bazar | Kutubdia | Maheshkhali | Ramu | Teknaf | Ukhia |
Background: Cox's Bazar represents the longest sea beach of the world and charming forest belt. .
Cox's Bazar having been a great tourist resort various establishments have developed in the town including 6 big hotels, 30 medium hotels, 50 semi-medium hotels, Jhinuk market for the tourists and the Burmese market dealing in luxury goods from Burma, Thailand and China.
Main offshore islands: Maheshkhali , Kutubdia, Matarbari, Sonadia, Shah pari and St Martin's or Jinjira.
Main forests areas are Phulchhari Range, Bhumaria-ghona Range, Meher-ghona Range, Bak Khali Range.
The district having been a coastal region often falls victim to sea storm, tidal bore, hurricane and cyclone.
Location: Cox's Bazar District (Chittagong division) is surrounded by Chittagong district on the north, Bay of Bengal on the south, Bandarban district, Arakan (Myanmer) and the NAF river on the east, the Bay of Bengal on the west.
Area: 2491.86 sq km
Temperature: Annual average temperature maximum 34.8?C and minimum 16.1?C; annual rainfall 4285 mm.
Rivers & Island: Main rivers are the Matamuhuri, Bakkhali, Reju Khal, Naf, Maheshkhali channel and Kutubdia channel.
District (Town): Cox's Bazar municipality was constituted in 1869 and was turned into a town committee in 1959. The town committee was replaced by municipality in 1972 and it was elevated to B grade in 1989. The municipality covers an area of 6.85 sq km with 27 mahallas and 9 wards; population 60234; male 57.09%, female 42.91%. The literacy rate among the town people is 52.2%.
Administration: Cox's Bazar thana was established in 1854 and Cox's Bazar Subdivision was formed comprising of Cox's Bazar sadar, Chakoria, Maheskhali and Teknaf thanas. Afterwards three new thanas were constituted under this subdivision such as Ukhia, Kutubdia and Ramu. Under the decentralisation scheme the thanas were transformed into upazilas and the Cox's Bazar subdivision was elevated to a district in 1984. It consists of 7 upazilas, 3 municipalities, 27 wards, 58 mahallas, 67 union parishads, 199 mouzas and 975 villages.
Upazila: The upazilas are Cox`s Bazar Sadar,Chakoria, Maheshkhali ,Teknaf, Ramu, Kutubdia and Kkhia.
Archaeological heritage: Adinath Temple (Maheskhali), Tomb of Shah Umar (in Chakoria), Satgumbad Masjid of Fazl Quke at Manikpur, Hasher dighi, Bir Kamla dighi, (in Teknaf) Well of Mathin, (in Kutubdia) Kalarma Masjid, Tomb of Qutub Awliya, (in Ramu) Ramkot Hindu Mandir, Ramkot Buddhist Keyang, Lamarpara Buddhist Keyang, (in Ukhia) Patabari Buddhist Keyang, Kutupalang Buddhist Keyang, Kanabazar underground channel, (in Cox's Bazar) Agvamedha Buddhist Keyang, Buddhist Pagoda, single domed mosque at Jhilanga.
Historical events: The Arab traders and preachers came to the ports of Chittagong and Akiab in the eighth century AD and consequently the Arab Muslims came in close contact with Cox's Bazar area situated between the two ports. The greater Chittagong including Cox's Bazar was under the rule of Harikela king Kantideva in the nineteenth century. The Arakan king Sulat Inga Chandra (930-975) captured Chittagong in 953 AD and since then Cox's Bazar had been a part of the kingdom of Arakan. Chittagong remained part of the kingdom of Arakan till its conquest by the Mughals in 1666 AD. The Mughal general Buzurg Umed Khan captured the Magh Fort on the southern bank of the Karnafuli and the Arakanise took shelter in the Ramu Fort, which was later surprised by the Mughals. The company, with a view to establish settlement in Cox's Bazar area, took a liberal policy of distributing land to the cultivators and this encouraged people from different parts of Chittagong district and from Arakan to settle in Cox's Bazar area. The Burmese king Bodhapaya (1782-1819) captured Arakan in 1784 AD. About thirty thousand Arakanese escaped the atrocities of the Burmese king to Cox's Bazar area in 1799 AD. The East India Company deputed one Captain Hiram Cox to arrange for the rehabilitation of the refugees (1799). Each refugee family was granted 2.4 acres of land and also granted food support for six months. Hiram Cox died (1799) before the completion of rehabilitation work. To commemorate his role in rehabilitation work a market was established and was named after him as Cox's Bazar (market of Cox) which originates the name of the place.
Marks of War of Liberation: Shaheed memorial monument 3, Mass killing site 1.
Population: 1957321; male 46.23%, female 53.77%; Muslim 92.13%, Hindu 5.6%, Buddhist 2.17%, Christian 0.06%, others 0.04%. Density of population per sq km is 570.
Religious institutions: Mosque 1626, temple 212, Buddhist keyang and pagoda 162, church 8, mazar 12.
Literacy: Average literacy 21.9%, male 28.2%, female 14.9%.
Educational institutions: Government college 4, non-government college 17, government high school 6, non-government high school 107, junior high school 8, madrasa 150, government primary school 376, non-government primary school 235, NGO operated primary school 22, primary teacher's training institute 1, technical training institute 1, kindergarten 9. Old institutions: Cox's Bazar Government High School (1874), Idgah Ideal High School (1928), Maizpara Government Primary School (1930), Qutubdia High School (1938), Teknaf Government Primary School (1890), Manikpur Burmeese Primary School (1828), Herbang Government Primary School (1884), Pekua Government Primary School (1918), Chakoria Government High School (1919), Saharbil Anwarul Ulum Senior Madrasa (1918), Maheskhali Government Vernacular School (1923).
Newspapers and periodicals: (Daily) Saikat, Cox's Bazar, Ajker Desh-bidesh, Dainandin, Mayer Desh, (weekly) Swadesh Bani, Kutubdia, Chakori, (fartnightly) Mehdi; extinct- Himchhari, Bak-khali, (weekly) Cox's Bazar, Cox's Bazar Barta, Sagar Bani, Sagar Kantha, Naf kantha.
Cultural organisations: Club 161, society and organisation 5, women's organisation 24, cooperative society 367, public library 5, theatre group 3, cinema hall 5.
Occupation: Main occupations Agriculture 25.64%, forestry 1.85%, fishing 4.01%, agricultural labourer 21.2%, wage labourer 7.64%, service 4.68%, commerce 15.14%, transport 1.86%, others 17.98%.
Land Property: Cultivable land 79500 hectares, land for salt cultivation 13355 hectares, land for shrimp cultivation 24,114 hectares, forest area 91865 hectares, fallow land 8620 hectares; single crop 26.5%, double crop 61%, triple crop 12.5%; cultivable land under irrigation 64%.
Land control Among the peasants, landless 46.5%, small peasant 27.5%, intermediate 19%, and 7% rich; cultivable land per head 0.06 hectare.
Value of land The market value of the first grade arable land is Tk. 7000 per 0.01 hectare.
Crops: Main crops Paddy, potato, pulse, onion, garlic, ginger, betel leaf, betel nut, wheat, sugarcane, ground nut, tobacco, rubber, vegetables. Extinct and nearly extinct crops Sesame, linseed, mustard, cotton, jute, kaun, lentil, gram, arahar, sweet potato.
Main fruits: Mango, jackfruit, pineapple, banana, papaya, coconut, plum, litchi, guava.
Dairies, fisheries and poultries: Livestock 49, poultry 246, fishery 1458, shrimp 759, hatchery 47, dry fish processing 6.
Communication facilities: Roads pucca 462 km, semi pucca 340 km and mud road 176 km; airport 1.
Traditional transport Boat, sampan and palanquin (nearly extinct), bullock cart and couch (extinct).
Mill & Factory: Manufactories Rice mill 473, salt mill 38, ice factory 64, flour mill 145, fish processing industry 31, fish feed mill 1, saw mill 74, printing press 18.
Cottage industries: Weaving 851, brass work 33, garments industry 200, conch industry 50, welding 172, fish preservation centre 85, bamboo and cane work 9991, goldsmith 290, blacksmith 232, potteries 405, wood work 1141, tailoring 1766.
Mineral resources: Natural gas, zircon, ilmenite, rutile, magnetite, monazite, coralline limestone.
Hats, bazars and fairs: Hats and bazars are 120; fair 8.
Main exports: Betel leaf, betel nut, jackfruit, banana, papaya, pineapple, timber, shrimp, dry fish, salt, tobacco, ground nut, fish, coconut, shrimp fry, rubber.
NGO activities: NGOs are Caritas, , Christian Commission for Development in Bangladesh, Prism Bangladesh, Gana-Svasthya Kendra, Brac,ASA,Ananda, PROSHIKA, Bangla-German Sampriti, World Vision, Concern, Islamic Relief Organisation, Muslim Aid, Al-Furkan Welfare Association, MSF (Holland), Red Crescent Society, CARE.
Health centre: Hospital 1, upazila health complex 7, mother and child care centre 1, TB clinic 1, satellite clinic 15, family planning centre 35, private hospital 5.