Baniachang Upazila ( Habiganj district) with an area of 482.25 sq km, is surrounded by sullah and Derai upazilas on the north, Habiganj Sadar and Lakhai upazilas on the south, Habiganj Sadar and Nabiganj upazilas on the east, Ajmirganj, Mithamain and Austagram upazilas on the west.
Main rivers are Kushiyara, Kalai and Barak. Notable Beels: Choragaon, Bata, Sonamua, Dhala, Chatal and Chandra Beel.
Baniachang (Town) consists of 7 mouzas. The area of the town is 3.06 sq km. It has a population of 21111; male 50.75%, female 49.25%. Literacy rate among the town people is 25.3%. Once the town was the capital of the ancient Loud Kingdom of Sylhet. It has one Dakbungalow.
Administration Baniachang thana, now an upazila, was established in 1790 and was turned into a sub-division of a district in 1934. It consists of 15 union parishads, 237 mouzas and 337 villages. The Baniachang is the largest village of Asia.
Archaeological heritage and relics Remnants of ancient Rajbari (1737-38) at Puranbagh, Bibir Dargah Mosque, Bikhangal Akhra.
Historical events Baniachang was the capital of Anwar Khan, the Zamindar of Sylhet. The history of the battle between Anwar Khan and his brother Hussain Khan (Bara Bhuiyans of Baniachang) with the Mughal army in the first decade of the seventeenth century is found in the Bahrastan-i-Gayebi.
Population 235855; male 50.84%, female 49.16%; Muslim 78.47%, Hindu 21.39% and others 0.14%.
Religious institutions Mosque 230, temple 70.
Literacy and educational institutions Average literacy 20.8%; male 25.5%, female 12.6%.
Educational institutions: college 1, high school 14, junior school 9, government primary school 114, non-government primary school 29, madrasa 19. Noted educational institution: LR Government High School (1896).
organisations Club 26, public library 2, theatre group 1, playground
Main occupations Agriculture 44.11%, agricultural labourer 24.10%, wage labourer 5.71%, commerce 5.37%, service 2.58%, fishing 4.43%, construction 1.76%, others 11.94%.
Land use Total cultivable land 3502.33 hectares, fallow land 1354.17 hectares; single crop 93.1%, double crop 6.4% and treble crop 0.5%.
Land control Among the peasants 35.4% are landless, 6.3% marginal, 35.1% small, 16.8% intermediate and 6.4% rich.
Main crops Paddy, wheat. Extinct or nearly extinct crops Aus and Katari paddy. Main fruits Mango, blackberry, papaya.
Fisheries, dairies, poultries Poultry 67, dairy 42, fishery 4.
Communication facilities Roads: pucca 25 km, semi pucca 12 km and mud road 218 km.
Traditional transport Palanquin (extinct) and bullock cart (nearly extinct), Gaina boat.
Manufactories Textile mill 4, water filter factory 1, umbrella factory 1.
Cottage industries Goldsmith 212, blacksmith 320, potteries 435, wood work 190, welding 2.
Mineral resources Natural gas.
Hats, bazars and fairs Total number of hats and bazars are 17, fairs 6, most noted of which are Bara Bazar, Ganing Ganj, Kadirganj, Kalibari Mela and Shyam Baul Mela. Main exports Paddy, fish.
NGO activities Operationally important NGOs are Brac, ASA, Caritas, ASA, CCDB.
Health centres Upazila health complex 1, union health and family planning centre 15, satellite clinic 5, and veterinary hospital 1.