Bauphal Upazila (Patuakhali district) with an area of 487.1 sq km, is surrounded by Bakrganj and Bhola Sadar upazilas, and Tentulia river on the north, Bhola Sadar, Burhanuddin and Lalmohan upazilas on the east, Dashmina, Galachipa and Patuakhali Sadar on the south, Patuakhali Sadar and Bakerganj upazilas on the west.
Main rivers are the Tentulia, Kalaiya. Bilhilaser.
Bauphal (Town) consists of 2 mouzas with an area of 7.85 sq km. It has a population of 12259; male 51.37%, female 48.64%.The density of population is 1562 per sq km. The literacy rate among the town people is 48.45%. The town has one dakbungalow.
Administration Bauphal thana was established in 1874 and was turned into an upazila in 1984. It consists of 14 unions, 131 mouzas and 142 villages.
Archaeological heritage Mosque of Ghaseti Begum (1757) at village Shaula, Pakdal Mian-bari Masjid, Bauphal Central Kali-bari Mandir (1875), Kachari (revenue office) of Rajendra Mahendra Babu, Kachari of Som at Daspara, Tomb of Syed Arefin at Kalisuri, Asram (monastery) of Mahendra Pagla at Bauphal, Dargah of Tamir at Kalaiya, Mithapukur (Daspara), Kanai Balai Dighi, Kamala Rani Dighi, sacred bathing place during Siva puja at Ponahura, Tomb of Sultan Fakir (Bauphal), Dol Samudra Dighi, Black hole at Sikdar-bari of Madanpura, Rajapur wall, Nurainpur Rajbari, Mosque of Munshi Amirullah.
Historical events Kachua of this upazila had once been the capital of the kingdom of Chandradvipa. The capital was later transferred to Madhavpasa (Barisal district) due to natural calamity on the sea-coast and the frequent raids of the Portuguese and Magh pirates. Bauphal is said to have been named after the fruit of a magnificent tree locally called 'Bau fal' retorted from 'Bahu fal' meaning enormous fruits, a tree, which once grew in abundance in the area. The name is also said to have been derived from the utterance of an Englishman who happened to marry a local girl. It is said that the Englishman while on a pleasure trip in the river with his newly married wife was attacked by the pirates and eventually his wife fell from the boat into the river. The Englishman just at the moment of her fall exclaimed, 'Bau fall' i.e the bride has fallen. The local tradition relates the tragic story of the couple and connects the utterance of the poor Englishman with the derivation of the name of the place. The anti-British movement extensively flourished in Bauphal area. During the liberation war in 1971 a severe battle was fought between the freedom fighters and the Pak-army on the Kumarkhali river of Kalishuri. The occupation army killed 35 persons by gun-shot and burnt many houses at Madanpura and Dhulia. Bauphal was liberated on 8 December.
Population 288825; male 50.09%, female 49.91% ; Muslim 89%, Hindu 11%.
Religious institutions Mosque 610, temple 140, tomb 2, dargah 1, asram 1, hindu sacred place 1.
Literacy and educational institutions Average literacy 37.9%; male 44.6%, female 31.3%.
Educational institutions: college 10, high school 50, junior high school 5, madrasa 67, primary school (government) 122, primary school (non-government) 175, community school 10, satellite school 11, kindergarten 3. Old institutions: Bauphal High School (1919), Obaidia Senior Madrasa (1930).
Newspapers and periodicals Fortnightly Tentulia (defunct).
Cultural organisations Club 37, social organisation 90, women association 30, co operative society 446, public library 1, sports association 20, artist group 2, press club 1, theatre group 1, music school 1, sewing centre 1, cinema hall 3, community centre 8, playground 50.
Main occupations Agriculture 42.25%, fishing 3.18%, commerce 11.26%, industries 1.08%, agricultural labourer 14.55%, wage labourer 5.01%, construction 1.78%, service 7.78%, others 13.11%.
Land use Cultivable land 36500 hectares, fallow land 250 hectares; single crop 19.9%, double crop 56.5%, triple crop 23.6%. Cultivable land under irrigation 13.7%.
Land control Among the peasants, 32% are landless, 12.5% marginal, 22% small, 25% intermediate, 8.5% rich; cultivable land per head 0.13 hectare.
Value of land The market value of the first grade arable land is about Tk 9500 per 0.01 hectare.
Main crops Paddy, jute, potato, pulse, vetch, chilli, sesame, mustard, linseed, ground nut, betel leaf, coriander seed, vegetables.
Main fruits Mango, jackfruit, coconut, papaya, betel nut, lemon.
Communication facilities Roads: pucca 41 km and mud road 1522 km.
Traditional transport Palanquin (extinct) and country boat.
Manufactories Ice mill 10, rice mill 150, saw mill 45, welding 50, brick field 5.
Cottage industries Weaving, bamboo and cane work, carpentry, tailoring, miscellaneous arts and crafts.
Hats bazars and fairs Total number of hats and bazars are 75; fair 4, noted of which are Kalaiya Hat, Kalishuri Hat, Baga Hat, Baherchar Hat, Kanakdia Hat, Nurayanpur Hat, Bilbilas Hat, Baufal Bazar, Adabaria Hat, Mominpur Hat, Dhulia Bazar, Poddarer Mela (Kachhipara), Mahendra Paglar Asram Mela (Baufal), Sabupurer Mela, Nadu Mandaler Mela (Mominpur).
Main exports Paddy, rice, pulse, chilli, hide, potteries, cereals, fish.
NGO activities Operationally important NGOs are BRAC, ASA, CARE,, RDS, BDS, BDC, DANIDA, SNOB, Terry des Homes, PDO, Mauchak.
Health centres Upazila health complex 1, NGO operated hospital 1, satellite clinic 4, family planning centre 14, veterinary hospital 1.