Begumganj Upazila (Noakhali district) with an area of 426.05 sq km, is surrounded by Laksham upazila on the north, Noakhali (old name Sudharam) upazila on the south, Senbagh upazila on the east and Lakhsmipur Sadar and Chatkhil upazilas on the west.
Begumganj (Town) stands 9 km to the north of Noakhali Sadar. It is a municipal town; the area of the town is 19.1 sq km. The town has a population of 184525; population density per sq km 9661. Literacy rate among the town people is 56.3%. It is a noted trade centre. The town has two dakbungalows.
Administration Begumganj thana, now an upazila, was established in 1892. It consists of 29 union parishads, 334 mouzas and 343 villages.
Archaeological heritage and relics Bajra Shahi Jami Mosque (1153 AH).
Historical events It is said that Mughal Subedar of Bengal Saista Khan visited Begumganj area with his wife (Begum) and Begumganj was named after the Begum of the Subadar. Mahatma Gandhi visited the area in 1946 to ease communal riot.
Marks of the War of Liberation Memorials 2 (Chaumuhani and Sonaipur).
Population 676168; male 49.2%, female 50.8%. Muslim 94.55%, Hindu 5.4% and others 0.05%.
Population wise Begumganj is the biggest upazila in Bangladesh.
Religious institutions Mosque 797, temple 4, Hindu
sacred place 1, tomb 5 most noted of which are Bajra Shahi Mosque,
Ghandi Ashram Trust.
Literacy and educational institutions Average literacy 44.4%; male 50.4% and female 38.8%.
Educational institutions: college 7, high school 62, madrasa 42, primary school 253.
Noted educational institutions: Chaumuhani Saleh Ahmed College, Begumganj Government Pilot High School, Bajra High School (1919), Ghatla High School (1915), Begumganj Agricultural Institute, Begumganj Industrial School, Begumganj Textile Institute, Begumganj Vocational Training Institute, Youth Training Institute.
Locally published newspapers and periodicals Dainik Jatiyo Nishan; extinct: Purba Bangabashi, Noakhali Sammilani, Desher Bani, monthly Asha and weekly Jatiyo Bangladesh.
Cultural organisations Club 3, cinema hall 2, library 10, theatre stage 2, auditorium 1, literary society and children organisation 3.
Main occupations Agriculture 23.13%, agricultural labourer 13.03%, wage labourer 2.5%, commerce 15.82%, service 26.71%, transport 3.13%, construction 1.01% and others 14.67%.
Land use Total cultivable land 30587.62 hectares; single crop 71%, double crop 22.14% and treble crop 6.86%.
Land control Among the peasants 9.61% are landless, 40.69% marginal, 42.79% small, 6.53% intermediate and .38% rich; cultivable land per head 0.6 hectare.
Value of land The market value of the land of the first grade is approximately Tk 5000 per 0.01 hectare.
Main crops Paddy (Boro, Aush), chilli, pulses, peanut, mustard seed. Extinct or nearly extinct crops Linseed, sesame, arahar, china.
Main fruits Mango, jackfruit, black berry, guava, coconut, papaya, betel nut.
Fisheries, dairies and poultries Dairy 2, poultry 17, government cattle rearing centre 1, artificial breeding centre 1.
Communication facilities Roads: pucca 61 km and mud road 112 km; railways 21 km; railway station 3.
Traditional transport Palanquin, horse carriage, bullock cart, buffalo cart. These means of transport are either extinct or nearly extinct.
Manufactories Jute mill 1, food industry 1, biscuit factory 14, rice mill 85, flour mill 7, oil mill 26, chemical industry 14, brick field 21, ice cream factory 10, printing press 43.
Cottage industries Weaving, bamboo and cane works, goldsmith, blacksmith, potteries, wood works, tailoring, dry fish production.
Hats, bazars and fairs Total number of hats and bazars are 61, most noted of which are Begumganj, Chaumuhani, Sonaimudi, Ramganj, Bajra, Banglabazar; fairs 2.
Mineral resources Natural Gas (Begumganj).
Main exports Rice, coconut, betel nut, biscuit, mustard oil, dry fish.
NGO activities Operationally important NGOs are Brac, ASA, Proshikha, Ghandhi Ashram Trust (GAT).
Health centres Hospital 1, upazila health complex 1, health and family welfare centre 4, family planning centre 18, maternity centre 1 and non-government health unit 5.