Bholahat Upazila ( Nawabganj district), with an area of 123.52 sq km, almost two-third of the upazila (west, north and east) is surrounded by Maldah district of West Bengal (India), Shibganj and Gomastapur uazilas on the south. Physiographically the upazila lies under Barind Tract .
Mahananda is the main river. Noted depressions are Bhatia, Baro Vaeoa, Chota Vaeoa, Kalan, Amgachi, Suria, Haridhoa, Dhankupa, Baro Koimari and Chota Koimari beels.
Bholahat (Town) consists of 5 mouzas. It has an area of 5.06 sq km. It has a population of 10,141; male 49.99%, female 50.01%; density of population is 2004 per sq km. Literacy rate among the town people is 35.7%. Bholahat is famous for Silk production. About 75% of cocoon and silk yearn of the country are produced here. About 60-65% of the local population is somehow related with silk industry.
Administration During the undivided Bengal Bholahat was under the Maldaha district of India. Bholarhat Thana was established in 1918. It was included into Nawabganj subdivision in 1947. The Thana was turned into an upazila in 1984. It consists of 4 union parishads, 91 villages and 45 mouzas.
Archaeological heritage Shiva Mandir, Jadunagar Mosque (Mughal period), Gopinathpur and Bazratek Mosques (Sultani period).
Historical events During the war of Liberation a direct encounter was held between the freedom fighters and the Pak army on 16 October in which freedom fighter Kamal Uddin Hena was killed.
Marks of War of Liberation Mass killing site: Sathia Bazaar and Jadunagar. Population 70507; male 49.6%, female 50.4%; Muslim 99% and Hindu 1%.
Religious institutions Mosque 183, Temple 3. Tombs of Shahbuddin Shah (R), Hazrat Bakhragazi (R) and Hazrat Bhola Shah (R) are notable.
Literacy and educational institutions Average literacy 26.5%; male 31.2%, female 21.9%.
Educational institutions: college 3, madrasa 11, secondary school 12, government primary school 26, non-government primary school 21. Bholahat Romeshwar Pilot High School (1911), Mushareevuza High School (1962), Bholahat Mohebullah Degree College (1986) are notable educational institutions.
Newspapers and periodicals Darpan (1994) and Bikash (1999). Cultural organisations Club 21, public library 2, theatre group 1, literary group 1, women's organisation 1, cinema hall 2 and community centre 1, most noted of which is Ziaul Hoque Public Library.
Main occupations Agriculture 33.02%, fishing 1.74%, agricultural labourer 35.67%, wage labourer 5.05%, commerce 9.15%, service 3.32%, others 12.05%.
Land use Total land 12352 hectares; single crop 57%, double crop 38% and triple crop 5%.
Value of land The market value of land of first grade is about Tk 7000 per 0.01 hectare.
Main crops Paddy, wheat, jute, mastered seed, pulses, vegetable. Extinct and nearly extinct crops Tisi (linseed), aush rice, kaun, black gram (one kind of pulse) are nearly extinct; and indigo, Koda, Cheena (common millet), Maara (one kind of pulse) are entirely extinct.
Main fruits Mango, jackfruit, litchi, black berry, palm, coconut, watermelon and palm. Fisheries, dairies, poultries Poultry 10.
Communication facilities Roads: pucca 37 km, semi pucca 9 km and mud road 260 km; waterways 11 nautical mile Traditional transport Horse carriage (nearly extinct) and Palanquin (extinct).
Manufactories Silk mills. Cottage industries Silk weaving industries. Hats, bazars and fairs Total number of hats and bazars are 6, most notable of which are Gohalbari, Batchamari, Munisiganj (Kanar Hat) and Barogachi. Fairs 3; Bahadurganj mela, Munisiganj mela and Poladanga Hautkhola mela.
Main exports Mango, vegetables and silk yearn.
NGO activities Operationally important NGOs are BRAC, Proshika and VERC, Trinamul, Vision, Proyash and Manobic Unnayan Sangstha (MAUS).
Health centres Upazila health complex 1, health and family planning centre 4, charitable dispensary 1.