Gaibandha Sadar Upazila (Gaibandha district) with an area of 306.53 sq km, is surrounded by Sundarganj and Char Rajibpur upazilas on the north, Palashbari,Sughatta, and Fulchari upazilas on the south, Dewanganj and Fulchhari upazilas and Brahmaputra river on the east, Sadullapur and Palashbari upazilas on the west. 

Main rivers are Jamuna, Brahmaputra and Ghaghat.

Gaibandha (Town) consists of 9 wards and 34 mahallas. The area of the town is 17.63 sq km. It has a population of 58362; male 51.14%, female 48.86%. This town was established in 1875 when the subdivision was transferred from Bhabaniganj to Gaibandha. Literacy rate among the town people is 61.9%. 

Administration Gaibandha thana, now an upazila, was established in 1857. The upazila consists of one municipality, 9 wards, 138 mouzas and 127 villages.

Archaeological heritage and relics Ancient Mosque (1308) at Mirer Bagan of Dariapur and tomb of Pir Ibn Sharfuddin.

Marks of War of Liberation Mass killing site 1.Population 359226; male 50.60%, female 49.40%; Muslim 91.41%, Hindu 7.98% and others 0.61%; ethnic nationals: Hrishi and Ghangar Communities. 

Religious institutions Mosque 508 and temple 36. 

Literacy and educational institutions Average literacy 28.2%; male 35.2% and female 21.1%. 

Educational institutions: college 7, technical college 1, law college 1, teacher's training centre 1, high school 48, junior high school 8, madrasa 166, government primary school 136, non-government primary school 59, satellite school 11, community school 11, vocational training centre 1. 

Noted educational institutions: Gaibandha Boy's High School (1885), Gaibandha Islamia High School (1914), Gaibandha College (1947).

Locally published newspapers and periodicals Dainik: Ghagat, Sandhan, Palash, Bhorer Surya, Janasanket, Weekly: Ganauttaran, Ganaprahari; periodicals: Akash Tara, Shabda and Istikutum; extinct: Weekly Gaibandha, Weekly Kanthashwar, Weekly Ganadut, Weekly Agradut, Fortnightly Purbadiganta, Monthly Tista.

Cultural organisations Club 37, public library 2, theatre group 5, women's organisation 8, cinema hall 3, theatre stage 6. 

Main occupations Agriculture 33.91%, agricultural labourer 26.22%, wage labourer 3.81%, transport 3.72%, commerce 13.05%, service 7.11% and others 11.55%. 

Land use Total cultivable land 21521.65 hectares; fallow land 1783.49 hectares; single crop 18.20%, double crop 55.56% and treble crop 26.24%; land under irrigation 75.18%.

Land control Among the peasants 33.49% are landless, 50.94% small, 13.71% intermediate and 1.86% rich; cultivable land per head 0.11 hectare.

Value of land The market value of the land of the first grade is Tk 5000 per 0.01 hectare.

Main crops Paddy, wheat, potato, brinjal, patal, kakrol, onion, garlic.

Extinct or nearly extinct crops Sugarcane, tobacco, linseed, china. Main fruits Mango, jackfruit, papaya, litchi, water melon and banana.

Fisheries, dairies, poultries Poultry 50, diary 68, fishery 1, hatchery 2, nursery (fish) 8.

Communication facilities Roads: pucca 101 km, semi pucca 5 km and mud road 750 km; waterways 8 nautical mile; railways 24 km.

Traditional transport Palanquin, horse carriage, buffalo cart and bullock cart. These means of transport are either extinct or nearly extinct.

Manufactories Flour mill 3, ice factory 5, soap factory 3, chira mill 2, plastic pipe factory 1. 

Cottage industries Goldsmith, potteries, bidi, blacksmith, bamboo and cane work, tailoring, NAKSHI KANTHA, cocoon production, fishing net work, wood work.

Main hats, bazars and fairs The most noted hats and bazars are Tulsi Ghat, Mather Ghat, Kamarjani, Laxmipur, Dariapur, Bahiakhali Hat; fair 1 (Thakurbari Mela). 

Main exports Jute, paddy, potteries, plastic pipe and vegetables. 

NGO activities Operationally important NGOs are BRAC, ASA,CARE, CVP, Swanirvar Bangladesh, Ahsania Mission, Gana Unnayan Kendra, Ekata, Ganaunnayan and Paribar Kallan Kendra, Gharani, Uddipan, Paribarik Sahastha Seba Kendra and TMSS 

Health centres Zila sadar hospital 1, rural health centre 1, union health centre 7, maternity 1, and family welfare centre 8.