Kalmakanda Upazila ( Netrokona district) with an area of 377.41 sq km, is surrounded by West Bengal of India on the north, Barhatta upazila on the south, Dharmapasha on the east, Durgapur and Netrokona Sadar upazilas on the west.
Main rivers are Someshwari, Gunai; Pakata and Urdha; Bahar Beel is notable.
Kalmadanda (Town) consists of 2 mouzas. The town has an area of 8.37 sq km. It has a population of 9358; male 53.79%, female 46.21%; The density of population is 1121 per sq km. Literacy rate among the town people is 35.2%.
Administration Kalmakanda thana was established in 1941 and was turned into an upazila in 1983. The upazila consists of 8 union parishads, 179 mouzas and 343 villages.Archaeological heritage and relics Tomb of Monai Shah at village Battala.
Population 209360; male 50.99%, female 49.1%; Muslim 90%, Hindu 8.95%, Christian 0.8% and others 0.25%. Ethnic nationals: Hajong, Garo and Hodi 525 families.
Religious institutions Mosque 277, temple 22, church 4 and tomb 5. Literacy and educational institutions Average literacy 21.4%; male 26.3% and female 16.2%.
Educational institutions: college 1, high school 12, madrasa 7, government primary school 75, non-government primary school 46, low cost school 12, NGO operated school 33; old educational institution: Kalmakanda Pilot High School (1941).
Cultural organisations Rural club 22, cinema hall 2, playground 6.Main occupations Agriculture 50.21%, fishing 1.59%, agricultural labourer 25.59%, wage labourer 4.26% commerce 7.82%, service 1.52% and others 9.01%.
Land use Cultivable land 26523.67 hectares; fallow land 2743.83 hectares; single crop 55%, double crop 40% and treble crop land 5%; land under irrigation 76%.
Land control Among the peasants 36% are landless, 32% small, 27% intermediate and 5% rich.Value of land The market value of the land of the first grade is Tk 5000 per 0.01 hectare.
Main crops Paddy, potato, wheat. Extinct or nearly extinct crops Jute, mustard seed, varieties of pulse.
Main fruits Jackfruit, mango, banana and black berry. Fisheries, dairies, poultries Fishery 7, poultry 5.
Communication facilities Roads; pucca 8 km, semi pucca 19 km and mud road 345 km; waterways 11 nautical mile.
Traditional transport Palanquin, horse carriage, bullock cart and buffalo cart. These means of transport are either extinct or nearly extinct.
Manufactories Ice factory 2, flour mill 2, saw mill 11, printing press 1 and oil mill 1.
Cottage industries Goldsmith 7, wood work 92, blacksmith 52, tailoring 175, welding 6, potteries 70.
Hats, bazars and fairs Hats and bazars are 35, most noted hats are Nazirpur, Kalmakanda, Panchgaon; fairs 2.
Main exports Paddy.
NGO activities Operationally important NGOs are CARE,,BRAC, ASA, Caritas, CPCD, SAS, Education, Cooperative, Savings and Credit Society.
Health centres Upazila health complex 1, satellite clinic 2 and family planning centre 8.