Kamalganj Upazila (Maulvi Bazar district) with an area of 485.26 sq km is surrounded by Maulvibazar and Rajnagar upazilas on the north, Tripura (India) on the south, Kulaura and Tripura (India) on the east, Sreemangal and Maulvi Bazar Sadar upazilas on the west.
About 23% area of the upazila is hilly. Total forest 82.02 sq km. River Dhalai is passing through this upazila and fall down into the Manu; Chaiyakhali Beel (7.6 hectares) is notable.
Kamalganj (Town) consists of 9 wards and 29 mahallas. It has an area of 11.66 sq km. The town has a population of 14627; male 50.45%, female 49.55%; density of population is 1254 per sq km. Literacy rate among the town people is 38.5%. It has one dakbungalow.
Administration Kamalganj thana was established in 1922 and was turned into an upazila in 1983. Kamalganj municipality was established in 2000. The upazila consists of one municipality, 9 wards, 9 union parishads, 111 mouzas and 276 villages.
Historical events Peasant rebellion led by Panchanan Singh, Kasem Ali, Baikuntha Shawrma and Themba Singh took place at Vanubal in 1307 BS. A battle between the Mughal and the Afghan was fought at Patanusha in which the Afghan Commandar Khawja Osman was killed. This area is popularly known as Khawsa Osman Ghar. The peasant movement of Haor Karaiya (1968-69) stirred the whole country. During the liberation war fierce battle was held at Shamshernagar. On 29 March 1971, many Pakistani soldiers were killed by the combined attack of the EPR (East Pakistan Rifles) soldiers and the freedom fighters. Sipoy Hamidur Rahman (Birsrestha) was killed at village Aambasa.
Marks of War of Liberation Mass killing site: Shamshernagar Air Base; mass grave: Section 25 of Dewrachhara Tea Garden; memorial monument: Aambasa (Bir Srestha Shahid Sepoy Hamidur Rahman Memorial).
Religious institutions Mosque 293, temple 102, church 4.
Population 191672; male 50.98%, female 49.02%; Muslim 62.92%, Hindu 36.09%, Buddhist 0.04%, Christian 0.88%, others 0.07%. Ethnic nationals: Manipuri, Khasi, Tripura (Tipra) and Halam (5.67% of the total population).
Literacy and educational institutions Average literacy 28.6%; male 35.7%, female 21.1% (1991).
Educational institutions: college 2, secondary school 16, primary school (government) 87, primary school (non-government) 98, satellite school 6, madrasa 14. Kaliprashad High School (1895), Shamshernagar ATM High School (1929), MA Ohab High School (1933), Kamalganj High School (1934) are notable educational institutions.
Newspapers and periodicals Joybarta, and Dhalai.
Cultural organisations Public library 2, cinema hall 2, club and social welfare organisation 35; Manipuri Lalitakol Academy is notable.
Main occupations Agriculture 31.21%, agricultural labourer 14.73%, wage labourer 8.61%, industries 8.03%, commerce 6.70%, service 15.53%, construction labourer 1.02%, others 14.17%.
Land use Arable land 22672 hectare, non agricultural 8748 ha, fallow 506 ha, khash land 787.44 hectares; single crop 13.89%, double crop 69.45%, treble crop16.66%. There are 14 tea gardens in this upazila.
Value of land Market value of first grade arable land about Tk 8500 per 0.01 hectare.
Main crops Paddy, wheat, sugarcane, tea, betel nut, mustard seed, potato, yam, aubergine, barbati (kind of kidney bean), bottle gourd, lemon, watermelon. Extinct and nearly extinct crops Local varieties of paddy; Til (sesame), Tisi (linseed), check-pea.
Main fruits Mango, jackfruit, pineapple, black berry, litchi. Fisheries, dairies, poultries Cultivated pond 2120, jalmahal 1, fishery 33, dairy 9, poultry 8.
Communication facilities Roads: pucca 64.32 km, mud road 353 km; rail station 2, airport 1 (abandoned), railways 19.26 km.
Traditional transport Palanquin (extinct).
Manufactories Mid level manufactories including cold storage, tea processing factory, etc. Cottage industries Mainly Monipuri handlooms.
Hats, bazars and fairs Hats and bazars are 18, most noted of which are Vanugach, Shamshernagar, Munshibazar and Adampur.
Noted fairs are Thakur Bari Mela at Munshibazar, Baruni Snan & Austami Mela, Monipuri Rash Purnima Mela.
Main exports Tea, sugarcane molasses, vegetables, betel leaf.
NGO activities Brac,ASA HEED Bangladesh, BAOPA, CARE, Swanirvar Bangladesh, VERC, Janakollan Kendra, Atma Unniyan Samity (AUS), Unniyan Sahayak Sangstha (USS).
Health centres Upazila health centre 1, family planning centre 6, satellite clinic 3, charitable dispensary 1.