Kulaura Upazila (Maulvibazar district) with an area of 679.25 sq km, is surrounded by Fenchuganj and Barlekha upazilas on the north, Tripura state of India on the south, Tripura and Assam state of India on the east, Kamalganj and Rajnagar upazilas on the west.
Manu River, Hakaluki Haor, Langla Hill and Bamachal Tila are notable.
Kulaura (Town) consists of 9 wards and 27 mahallas. The town has an area of 8.32 sq km; population 21582; male 50.98%, female 49.02%; density of population is 2594 per sq km. Literacy rate among the town people is 46.2%.
Administration Kulaura thana was turned into an upazila in 1983. It consists of one municipality, 16 union parishads, 164 mouzas, and 486 villages. Archaeological heritage Nawab Bari of Pritthim Pasha (18th century), Rangirkul Vidia Ashram, Gagan Tila, tomb of Nimarta Shah and Chan Gram Dighi.
Historical events During the Sepoy Mutiny in 1857, about 300 Sepoys, who looted the Chittagong Treasury, took shelter to the Zamindar of Pritthim Pasha, Gowsali Khan. During the non-co operation movement of India in 1921, Purnendu Kishore Sengupta established the Vidia Ashram at Rangirkul of Kulaura.
Marks of War of Liberation Mass graves at Chiral Muchir Bari, bank of Padda Dighi of Ali Amjad High School and Chatol Gaon. Beside, Kulaura Hospital and Nabinchandra High School were used as torturing camp.
Religious institutions Mosque 507, temple 79, church 6, pagoda 7, tomb 16, eidgah 14, most noted of which are Mansur Eidgah and tomb of Hazrat Shah Kamal (R).
Population 339673; male 51.09%, female 49.91%. Muslim 74.21%, Hindu 24.58%, Christian 1.12%, others 0.09%. Ethnic nationals (Khasia, Monipuri and other ethnic groups) 6194.
Literacy and educational institutions Average literacy 28.8%; male 34.8%, female 22.4%. Educational institutions: college 6, secondary school 31, primary school (government) 163, primary school (private) 45, madrasa 38, kindergarten 10.
Newspapers and periodicals Weekly Manab Thikana (1997), Weekly Kulaurar Dak (1999). Extinct: Sreehatta Vraman-Parivraman (1930), Weekly Nakib (1937), Weekly Fariad (1987).
Cultural organisations Club 35, public library 1, cinema hall 1, theatre group 5, literature association 7, women's organisation 10.
Main occupations Agriculture 34.62%, fishing 1.3%, agricultural labourer 15.45%, wage labourer 14.29%, industry 2.07%, commerce 8.09%, service 8.47%, others 15.66%.
Land use Arable land 34257.39 hectares, fallow land 20388.51 hectares. Arable land under irrigation 77%.
Land control Among the peasants 27% are landless, 38% small, 24% intermediate and 11% rich; cultivable land per head 0.09 hectare.
Value of land Market value of first grade arable land about Tk 37000 per 0.01 hectare.
Main crops Paddy, wheat, potato, mustard, vegetables. Extinct and nearly extinct crops Sugarcane, til (sesame), tisi (linseed), arhar (one kind of pulse).
Main fruits Jackfruit, pineapple, mango, blackberry, litchi. Fisheries, dairies, poultries Fishery 24, poultry 59, hatchery 11.
Communication facilities Roads: pucca 180 km, mud road 278 km; waterways 22 nautical mile; railways 58 km; rail station 8, railways junction 1.
Traditional transport Palanquin (extinct), horse carriage and bullock cart (nearly extinct), country boat.
Manufactories Tea processing factory 10, saw-mill 8, rice mill 7, printing press 4, cold storage 1, ice cream factory 4, aluminium factory 1, ball pen industry 1.
Cottage industries Weaving 60, bamboo work 212, goldsmith 24, blacksmith 58, potteries 27, wood work 157, welding 29, cane work 16, others 61.
Mineral resources Uranium, glass sand, oil, gas.
Hats, bazars and fairs Hats and bazars are 25; mela (fair) 3 (Baruni Mela at Lalbag, Durga Puja Mela, Paush Sankranti Mela). Brahman Bazar, Kaminiganj, Falutala, Ghater Bazar, Chowdhury Bazar are notable hats.
Main exports Tea, rubber, betel leaf and bamboo and cane furniture.
NGO activities Brac, Proshika, Grameen Bank,ASA, HEED Bangladesh, Missionaries of Charity, Swanirvar Bangladesh.
Health centres Upazila health centre 1, family planning centre 16, satellite clinic 5, dispensary 7.