Lalmonirhat Sadar Upazila (Lalmonirhat district) with an area of 259.54 sq km, is surrounded by Cooch Bihar district of West Bengal (India) and Aditmari upazila on the north, Kaunia and Rajarhat upazilas on the south, Phulpur (Kurigram) and Rajarhat upazilas on the east, Aditmari and Gangachara upazilas on the west.
Main rivers are Tista,Dharla, Trimohoni and Sarnamati. The river Saniajan, originating from the Himalaya, has strong current.
Lalmonirhat (Town) consists of 9 wards and 63 mahallas. Lalmonirhat Municipality was established in 1973. The area of the town is 17.62 sq km. It has a population of 56672; male 52.02% and female 47.98%; density of population is 3216 per sq km. The literacy rate among the town people is 47.9%.
Lalmonirhat town is well known as a Railway Junction from the beginning of the nineteenth century. Once upon a time one could go to the foot of the Himalayan from Lalmonirhat. The head quarters of the western region of Bangladesh Railway are located here. At present the city is expanding towards Saptabari Union to the west and Kalurghat Union to the east. The town has one dakbungalow and one Circuit House.
Administration Lalmonirhat Sadar thana, now an upazila, was established in 1901. It consists of one municipality, 12 union parishads, 160 mouzas, 147 villages and 1 enclave.
Archaeological relics and monuments Subadar Monsur Khan Mosque (Nidaria Mosque); Harano (lost) Mosque (8th century AH) at Barabari of Panchagram, Sindhumati Pond, Hussain Sarabor (dry tank).
Marks of War of Liberation Mass graves: backyard of the railway main building, by the side of the pond at the backyard of the No. 7 Rifle Battalion, backyard of the Science Laboratory of the Lalmonirhat Government High School; memorials 2; Shaheed Dr. Zoha Gate at the west side of the Railway over-bridge.
Population 260876; male 51.52%, female 48.49%; Muslim 82.3%, Hindu 17.5%, others 0.2%; ethnic nationals: 438 (Koch and Rajbanshi).
Literacy and educational institutions Average literacy 27.7%; male 35.7%, female 19.2%.
Educational institutions: government college 3, non-government college 4, technical institution 2, government high school 3, non-government high school 30, secondary school 12, madrasa 20, government primary school 76, non-government primary school 57.
Noted old institutions: Lalmonirhat Government High School (1921), Lalmonirhat Government Girl's High School, Railway Children Park Government High School, Lalmonirhat Government College, Nesaria Alia Madrasa.
Locally published newspapers and periodicals Weekly Lalmonirhat Batra, Weekly Janajani; irregular: Lalmonirhat Sahitya Patrika; extinct: Chaloman, Ekata, Daruchini Sarpatra, Idaning, Aurenna Rodan.
Cultural organisations Club 150, co operative society 215, public library 2, cultural society 12, literary society 12, cinema hall 2, theatre party 2, opera party 4, auditorium 2, women's organisation 2, magic performance group 1.
Religious institutions Mosque 604, temple 50, church 2, sacred place 3.
Noted religious institutions: Central Jami Mosque, Thanapara Jami Mosque, Baitul Sajit Jami Mosque, Kali Mandir, Puranbazar Church of God, Khata Para Bara Dargah, Sindurmati Tirtha (sacred place) and Baniri Dighi Tirtha
Main occupations Agriculture 41.9%, agricultural labourer 26.7, commerce 10.9%, wage labourer 3.5%, service 7.7%, transport 2.1%, fishing 0.1%, others 7.1%.
Land use Total cultivable land 19987 hectares, permanently uncultivable 3633 hectares, fallow 1971 hectares; single crop 8%, double crop 65% and treble crop land 27%; land under irrigation 60%.
Land control Among the peasants, 23.91% are landless, 27.95% marginal, 23.96% small, 20.12% intermediate and 4.06% rich; cultivable land per family 0.15 hectare.
Value of land The market value of the land of the first grade is Tk 5000 to 7000 per 0.01 hectare.
Main crops Paddy, tobacco, sugarcane, corn, potato, cauliflower, cabbage and vegetables.Extinct and nearly extinct crops Local varieties of aus and boro paddy, jute, china, kaun.
Main fruits Mango. jackfruit, betel nut, litchi, grape fruit, coconut, banana, papaya.
Fisheries, dairies, poultries Fishery 15, hatchery 3, dairy 7, poultry 28.
Communication facilities Roads: pucca 74 km, semi pucca 28 km and mud road 430 km; railways 24 km; rail station 4.
Traditional transport Palanquin (extinct), horse carriage, bullock cart and buffalo cart (nearly extinct), boat.
Manufactories Cold storage 2, flour mill 5, oil mill 3, ice factory 4, saw mill 18, biscuit factory 5.
Cottage industries Small and cottage industry 46, hand operated 1, husking mill 70.
Hats, bazars and fairs Hats and bazars are 209, most noted of which are Barabari, Tista, Saptibari, Kulaghat, Durakhti, Mahendranagar and BDR Gate.
Fairs 9, most noted are Shindurmati Mela, Baniar Dighi Chaitra Sankranti Mela, Shaptibari Muharram Mela, Dadgash Rash Mela.
Main exports Tobacco, sugarcane, potato, corn, betel nut and vegetables.
NGO activities Brac. ASA, Proshika, Grameen Bank, Care,, Family Health Clinic (Sabuj Chhata), RDRS ,Apan Gram Pragati (OVA)
Health centres Hospital 3, health complex 2, clinic 5, maternity and child welfare hospital 1, union health and family planning centre 9.