Manikganj Sadar Upazila (Manikganj district) with an area of 214.81 sq km, is surrounded by Saturia upazila on the north, Nawabganj (Dhaka) and Harirampur upazilas on the south, Singair and Dhamrai upazilas on the east, Harirampur and Ghior upazilas on the west.
Main rivers are Dhaleswari,Ichamati Kaliganga and Gazikhali.
Manikganj (Town) consists of 9 wards and 49 mahallas. The area of the town is 20.59 sq km. It has a population of 53161; male 51.16% and female 48.84%; density of population is 2582. Literacy rate among the town people is 49.9%.
Administration Manikganj thana was established in 1845 and was turned into an upazila in 1983. It consists of 13 union parishads, 1 municipality, 311 mouzas and 308 villages.
Archaeological heritage Manikganj Jami Mosque, Sree Sree Anandamayee Kalibari (1895), Rajani Bhaban and Jhovat Bhaban (Gangadhar Patty), Matta Math (1894), Narayan Sadhu Asram (1348 B.S), Katchari (revenue office) of Ishu Babu (Hijuli), Sivabari Mandir, Neel-kuthi at Baimail.
Historical events A severe battle was fought at Garhpara between the Bengal sultan Sikandar Shah and his son Ghiyasuddin Azam Shah, ruler of Sonargaon, in which Sikandar Shah lost his life. Mir Jumla, the Mughal subadar of Bengal, established a military outpost and administrative centre at Garhpara in 1662. Following its political importance Garhpara subsequently developed into a river-port. The port flourished enormously during the British rule and played important role in the inland trade of Bengal. During the Liberation War of 1971 a battle was fought between the freedom fighters and the Pak army at village Kagajinagar on 12 December. The Pak-army was dispersed by the guerrilla attack of the freedom fighters and a Pak-soldier was strangled. A conflict was ensued between the freedom fighters and the receding Pak army at Baliartek resulting in the captivity of a Pak-soldier. At the initial stage of the conflict freedom fighter Nawsher Molla (Harina, Harirampur) lost his life as a result of the surprise attack from the side of the Pak army. The Pak-army while retreating through the Dhaka-Aricha highway a group of freedom fighters attacked them at village Manra in which freedom fighter Mohammad Chand Miah (south Dowli) was killed. The freedom fighters having retreated resumed attack on the Pak army on the Dhaka-Aricha highway near village Lawkhanda. The Pak army having taken position on the northern side of the highway and the freedom fighters on the southern side continued fighting and proceeded up to Jagir, Golra, Nayadingi and Barbaria. One Pak-soldier was killed in the encounter and the rest managed to retire.
Marks of War of Liberation Memorial monument at a place adjacent west to the Manikganj Bus-stand built on the sacred memory of 49 martyr freedom fighters.
Population 237771; male 50.23%, female 49.77%; Muslim 85.65%, Hindu 14.2%, Christian 0.02% and ethnic nationals 0.13%.
Religious institutions Mosque 314, temple 90, mazar 10, dargah 2, sacred place 1.
Notable religious institutions: Manikganj Jami Mosque, Court Mosque, Seota Graveyard Mosque, Bus-stand Jami Mosque, Porra Mosque, Beutha Mosque, Betila Mosque, Bhatbaur Jami Mosque, Bazar Mosque, Uchutia Jami Mosque, Vikra Jami Mosque, tomb of Mafizuddin (Dashra), Gorhpara Imambari mazar, Rahim Darbar Sharif (Bhatbaur), Khoda Baksh Darbar Sharif (Bhatbaur), Sree Sree Anandamayee Kalibari, Lakshmi-mandap, Sivabari Mandir, Garhpara Mandir, Dautia Mandir, Sivabari Hindu tirtha (sacred place).
Literacy and educational institutions Average literacy 56%; male 57.24%, female 54.76%.
Educational institutions: college (government) 2, college (non-government) 5, law college 1, primary teacher's training institute 1, veterinary training institute 1, high school (government) 2, high school (non-government) 29, madrasa 3, music school 1, local centre of Bangladesh Open University 1, primary school (government) 88, primary school (non-government) 19.
Old and noted institutions: Manikganj Government High School (1884), Manikganj Model High School (1918), SK Government Girl's High School (1930), Khabaspur Lavanya Prava High School (1941), Lemubari High School (1949), Garhpara High School (1959), Garhpara Arzu Banu High School (1969), Betila Multilateral High School (1960), Matta Valika High School (1970), Navarun High School (1970). Jainagar High School (1970), Garhpara New Model High School (1972), Government Devendra College (1942), Government Mahila College (1972), Manikganj Islamia Senior Madrasa (1953).
Newspapers and periodicals Weeklies: Alor Bani, Muktir Vahana, Karcha, Manikganjer Khabar, Ababil; (extinct) Weekly Manikganj, Manikganj Barta, Weekly Budhbar, Weekly Pataka, Chalaman, Muktir Dak, Navagram, Jagarani, Ritu-rang-man, Abahaman, Maitree International, Bitapa.
Cultural organisations Club 120, public library 2, literary organisation 3, women's association 2, theatre group 15, jatra party 8, theatre stage 3, cinema hall 3.
Main occupations Agriculture 33.75%, agricultural labourer 17.82%, fishing 1.67%, industry 1.14%, construction 1.36%, commerce 13.47%, service 11.38%, transport 3.33%, wage labourer 4.77% and others 11.31%.
Land use Cultivable land 16,659 hectares, fallow land 138 hectares; single crop 9.36%, double crop 61.25% and triple crop land 29.39%. Cultivable land under irrigation 48.02%.
Land control Among the peasants, 21% are landless, marginal peasant 65%, inter mediate 10% and 4% rich; cultivable land per head 0.07 hectare.
Value of land The market value of the first grade arable land is Tk 8500 per 0.01 hectare.
Main crops Paddy, wheat, jute, tobacco, potato, pulse, sugarcane, oil seed, onion, garlic, pepper, vegetable. Extinct or nearly extinct crops Linseed, china, dabri, barley, kaun, pea, vetch (gram), sesame.
Main fruits Mango, jackfruit, banana, papaya, guava, coconut, palm. Fisheries, dairies and poultries Fishery 13, livestock and dairy 329, poultry 644, hatchery 5.
Communication facilities Roads: pucca 92 km, semi pucca 15 km and mud road 498 km; waterways 16 nautical mile.
Traditional transport Boat, bullock cart, horse carriage, push van, canoe, earthen bowl, vela (boat made of plantain tree). These means of transport are either extinct or nearly extinct.
Manufactories Heavy industry 4, medium industry 5, small industry 378.
Cottage industries Weaving 312, silk industry 10, conch bangle industry 15, brass metal industry 12, bidi factory 2, welding 97, packaging industry 15, book binding industry 10, candle and agar industry 13, molasses industry 25, miscellaneous repairing workshop 138, miscellaneous industry 42, bamboo work 327, goldsmith 125, blacksmith 48, potteries 307, wood work 92, tailoring 205.
Hats bazars and fairs Hats and bazars are 21, fair 12, noted of which are Bangladesh Hat, Jaira cattle hat, Dautia, Atigram, Manikganj Bazar, Beutha Bazar, Bus-stand Bazar, Manikganj Rath Mela, Rash Mela (Betila), Sivabari Mela, Baisakhi Mela (Panjankhara), Maharram mela (Garhpara Imambari), Nimai Chander Mela (Krishnapur).
Main exports Paddy, wheat, flour, milk, molasses, pulse, oil seed, cattle, poultry, vegetables, bamboo, cane, brick, bidi, brass metal products, gas cylinder.
NGO activities Operationally important NGOs are Brac, Proshika, Grameen Bank, SPUS, Dak, ASA, Gana Kalyan Trust, Arab, VON (a total of 98 NGOs).
Health centres Sadar hospital 1, maternity and child care centre 1, private clinic 4, satellite clinic 1, family planning centre 10, community clinic (proposed) 12.