Maulvi Bazar Sadar Upazila (Maulvibazar district) with an area of 344.34 sq km, is surrounded by Balaganj and Rajnagar upazilas on the north, Sreemangal upazila on the south, Kamalganj and Rajnagar upazilas on the east, Nabi ganj and Sreemangal upazilas on the west. 

Main rivers areManu, Kushiyara and Barak. Hail Haor, Kawadighi Haor and Aakasa Beel are noted depressions. Varsijura and Raghunandanpur are reserve forests; total forest area 4.27 sq km.

Maulvi Bazar Sadar (Town) stands on the bank of the river Manu, consists of 9 wards and 47 mahallas. It has an area of 10.36 sq km; population 41358; male 54.97%, female 45.03%; density of population is 3992 per sq km. Literacy rate among the town people is 56.7%. 

Maulvi Bazar municipality was established in 1930. The town has one Circuit House and one Rest House; Pashchim Bazar and Chowmuhana are the main commercial centres.

Administration Maulvi Bazar thana was established in 1882 and turned into an upazila in 1984. It consists of one municipality, 15 union parishads, 219 mouzas and 419 villages. 

Archaeological heritage Khoja Mosque at Goiyghar (14th century), tomb of Hazrat Shah Mohammad Sher-e-Sawar Chabul Mar (R) and Agnan Thakur Temple.

Historical events As a part of anti-British movement, Khilafat Conference was held in1921 in which Deshbandhu Chittaranjan Das, Maulana Hossain Ahmed Madani, Sarojani Naidu were present. During the war of liberation in 1971 encounters between the freedom fighters and the Pak army were held at different places of the upazila including Manumukh and Sherpur.

Marks of War of Liberation Mass graves at Nali Uri, Maulvi Bazar High School playground; mass killing site: on the riverbank of the Forest Office Road; memorial monument at Maulvi Bazar High School. 

Religious institutions Mosque 336, temple 36, church 1, most noted of which are West Bazar Jami Mosque, Court Jami Mosque and the tomb of Hazrat Shah Mostafa (R).

Population 239378; male 51.56%, female 48.44%. Muslim 82.32%, Hindu 17.43%, others 0.25%; large number of people live in different countries, specially in the UK. The people living in UK are known as 'Londoni'. 

Literacy and educational institutions Average literacy 36.1%; male 41.2%, female 30.5%. 

Educational institutions: college (government) 2, college (non-government) 2, secondary school (government) 2, secondary school (private) 24, primary school (government) 166, primary school (private) 23, madrasa 9, primary training institute 1, vocational training institute 1, co-operative institute 1, youth training centre 1, horticulture research institute 1, education project for the blinds (government) 1, nursing institute 1. 

Notable educational institutions: Maulvi Bazar Government High School (1891), Kashinath Alauddin High School (1917), Ali Amzad Government Girls' High School (1932), Maulvi Bazar Government College (1956), Darul Ulum, Madrasa, etc.

Newspapers and periodicals Daily Maulvi Bazar, Daily Banglar Din; Weekly Patakunrir Desh, Weekly Manubarta, Weekly Janaprattasa, Weekly Muktakatha, Weekly Hefazat-e-Islam, Weekly Maulvi Bazar Darpan, Al Insan, The Sylhet Today (Fortnightly), Monthly Durdiganta and Monthly Sree Gaurbanee. Extinct: Monthly Tabligul Islam and Monthly Tanjimul Muslemin (1924), Weekly Avijan (1935), Monthly Christian Jagat (1935), Weekly Agradut (1960), Monthly Bonna (1970), Weekly Biplavi Bangla (1972), Weekly Muktabarta (1972). 

Cultural organisations Club 2, public library 2, theatre group 6, women's organisation 11.

Main occupations Agriculture 33.09%, fishing 3.84%, agricultural labourer 15.72%, non agricultural labour 4.86%, construction labourer 1.79%, commerce 12.58%, service 7.67%, transport & communication 3.09%, others 17.36%.

Land use Cultivated land 21734.51 hectares, fallow 5711.45 hectares, Khas land 375.56 hectares. Single crop 30.07%, double crop 63.88% and treble crop 5.87%.Land control Among the peasants 24.22% are landless, 13.27% marginal, 21.97% small, 19.83% intermediate and 7.72% rich.

Value of land The market value of land is around Tk 60000 per 0.01 hectare. 

Main crops Local variety of paddy (Nee, Birni, Kalijira), tea, betel leaf, betel nut. Extinct and nearly extinct crop Jute (nearly extinct). 

Main fruits Pineapple, jackfruit, mango, litchi, kamranga, shaddock (Jambura/Batabi Lebu), black berry. Dairies, poultries Dairy 20 and poultry 30. 

Communication facilities Roads: pucca 110 km, mud road 204 km; river port 1 (Sherpur). Traditional transport Country boat, palanquin (nearly extinct). 

Cottage industries Cottage industries include mainly bamboo, cane and murta works Hats, bazars and fairs Hats and bazars are 31, most noted which are Maulvi Bazar, Digharpar, Dighirpar, Sarkar Bazar, Sherpur, Goraiya, Kamalpur and Shamserganj; fair of Shah Mostafa, Fish Mela of Sherpur, Mangalchandi Aastami Mela are notable. 

Main exports Tea, dry fish, naga chilli. NGO activities Brac,ASA, FIVDB, CARE, Unnayan Sahayak Sangstha USS. 

Health centres Sadar hospital 1, upazila health centre 1, union and rural health centre 1, family welfare centre 1, charitable dispensary 1, child and maternity centre 1, TB clinic 1, diabetic hospital 1, police hospital, prison hospital 1, eye hospital 1, clinic 1.