Nageshwari Upazila (Kurigram district) with an area of 415.80 sq km, is surrounded by Bhurungamari upazila and West Bengal of India on the north, Kurigram Sadar upazila on the south, Asam State of India on the east and Phulbari upazila (Kurigram) on the west.
Main rivers are Bramanputra, Dudhkumar, Nilkamal, Shankos and Phulkumar; depressions: 54, most noted of which are Payradanga, Teparkuthi, Naodanga and Madaikhal.
Nageshwari (Town) consists of 8 mouzas. It has an area of 35.2 sq km. The town has a population of 39731; male 52.02% and female 47.98%; population density per sq km 1129. Literacy rate among the town people is 28.1%. The town has two dakbungalows.
Administration Nageshwari Thana was established in 1793 and was turned into an upazila in 1983. The Upazila consists of 15 union parishads, 79 mouzas and 367 villages.
Archaeological heritage and relics Remnants of Zamindar Bari at Bhitarbandh; Devi Chowdhurani Math at Poiradanga.
Historical events The protest meeting against 'Bangal Khedao' of Assam organised by Maolana Bhasani was held in 1954 at Raiganj. During the War of Liberation in 1971 in attempting to destroy Kumorpur Bridge Muktijoddha Shamser Ali Basunia along with his compatriots martyr Rustam Ali, martyr A Khaleque, martyr Jamsed Ali and martyr Mizanur Rahman were arrested by the Razakars. Although Shamser Ali Basunia managed to escape others were killed by the Razakars.
Marks of the War of Liberation Mass grave: at a place adjacent to the Central Shaheed Minar, near the Dharka Beel; martyr memorial monument near Chandipur.
Population 279775; male 50.72%, female 49.28%; Muslim 93.53%, Hindu 6.19% and others 0.28%; ethnic nationals: Buno, a tribe of Santal live on the bank of the river Naodanga.
Religious institutions Mosque 850, temple 17 and sacred place 2, most noted of which are Nageshwari Bus Stand and Nageshwari Bazar Jami Mosques, Madaikhal Kali Mandir.
Literacy and educational institutions Average literacy 19.4%; male 26.8% and female 11.9%.
Educational institutions: college 8, government high school 1, non-government high school 52, madrasa 143, government primary school 95, non-government primary school 78, kindergarten school 5, community school 2.
Noted educational institutions: Bhitarbandh JD Academy (1945), Nageshwari Dayamoye Academy High School (1945), Poiradanga Government Primary School (1907) and Nageshwari Degree College (1967).
Locally published newspapers and periodicals Present: weekly Dudkumor, and Ranaran; extinct: monthly Ketan, fortnightly Sajag, monthly Betarbani.
Cultural organisations Club 97, cinema hall 2, public library 2, theatre group 2, literary society 3, women's organisation 14, co operative society 93, sports organisation 1.
Extinct noted cultural organisations: Anushilan Kendra, Natya Mandir of Bhitarbandh Zamindar Bari and Nageshwari Public Club.
Main occupations Agriculture 51.23%, agricultural labourer 29.64%, wage labourer 2.76%, commerce 5.38%, service 2.22% and others 8.77%.
Land use Total cultivable land 31070.78 hectares, fallow land 178.54 hectares; single crop 16%, double crop 64% and treble crop land 20%.
Land control Among the peasants 40% are landless, 28%, marginal, 29%, small 3%, rich; cultivable land per head 0.11 hectare.
Value of land The market value of the land of the first grade is approximately Tk 7500 per 0.01 hectare.
Main crops Paddy, jute, wheat, potato, chilli, mustard seed, brinjal, patal, onion, garlic, tejpata, peanut, bamboo, vegetables.Extinct or nearly extinct crops Indigo, china, sweet potato, mesta jute, linseed, sesame, kaun, arahar, cucumber, deodana, kusun phul and aus paddy.
Main fruits Mango, jackfruit, black berry, litchi, papaya, banana, coconut, betel nut, watermelon.Fisheries, dairies and poultries Fishery 273, dairy 79 and poultry 203.
Communication facilities Roads: pucca 53 km, semi pucca 2 km and mud road 1212 km; waterways 14 nautical mile.Traditional transport Palanquin (extinct), bullock cart (nearly extinct) and boat.
Manufactories Rice mill 47, flower mill 1, biscuit factory 7, welding 24, ice factory 11.
Cottage industries Bamboo and cane work, goldsmith, blacksmith, potteries, cobbler, bidi, wood work, tailoring. Cocoon produced by women labour aided by NGO.
Hats, bazars and fairs Hats and bazars are 26, most noted of which are Nageshwari, Bhitarbandh, Raiganj, Kachakata, Gagla, Newashi and Nakhalganj; fairs 5, most noted of which are Nunkhaoa Aushtami Snan Mela, Kali Mela at Madaikhal and Baruni Mela at Berubari.
Main exports Jute, paddy, bamboo, onion, garlic, betel nut, peanut, chicken, cattle.
NGO activities Operationally important NGOs are RDRS, CARE, BRAC, ASA, Grameen Bank,KPAP, NBRDS, BRDS, Basundhara, Manab Kalyan.
Health centres Upazila health complex 1, palli health centre 1, health and family welfare centre 10, community clinic 39.