Nilphamari Sadar Upazila (Nilphamari district) with an area of 373.09 sq km, is surrounded by Domer upazila on the north, Saidpur upazila on the south, Kishoreganj (Nilphamari) and JalDhaka upazilas on the east and Khansama and Debiganj upazilas on the west.
Main rivers are Jamuneshwari and Chikni.
Nilphamari (Town) consists of 9 wards and 10 mahallas. The area of the town is 19.53 sq km. It has a population of 39838; male 51.33%, female 48.67%. The density of population is 2040 per sq km. Literacy rate among the town people is 48.2%.
Administration The Nilphamari Sadar thana was established in 1870 and was turned into an upazila in 1984. The upazila consists of 1 municipality, 9 wards, 15 union parishads, 115 mouzas and 108 villages.
Archaeological heritage and relics Birat Dighi (present name Nil Sagar) at Dhobadanga mouza of Gorgram Union (Raja Birat dug this dighi), tomb of Hazrat Pir Mohiuddin (Kundupukur Union), Neel Kuthi.
Historical events During the British period Nilphamari was famous for indigo (neel) cultivation. The British established a big farm for indigo cultivation at Natkhana of Nilphamari mouza.
Nilphamari is said to have been named after 'Neel Farm' or 'Neel Farming'. The previous name of Nilphamari was Sakamachha Port. The British traders used this port for exporting indigo.
Marks of the War of Liberation Memorial sculpture 'Swadhinatar Smriti Amlan'.
Population 306051; male 51.23%, female 48.77%; Muslim 77.62%, Hindu 22.11% and others 0.27%; ethnic nationals: Santals 500 families.
Religious institutions Mosque 460, temple 88, tomb 1, most noted of which are tombs of Hazrat Pir Mohiuddin (Kundupukur) and Syed Pagla Pir (Darowani).
Literacy and educational institutions Average literacy 23.2%; male 31.6%, female 14.3%.
Educational institutions: college 5, high school 44, madrasa 111, government primary school 102, non-government primary school 7, vocational institute 1, PTI 1, homeopathy college 1.
Noted educational institutions: Nilphamari Government High School (1882). Locally published newspapers and periodicals Weekly Nilphamari Barta, Neelsagar, Neelsamachar; extinct: Jagarani (1962), Neelanchan (1972).
Cultural organisations Club 5, public library 1, cinema hall 2, theatre group 4, theatre stage 1, literary society 1 and women's organisation 1.
Main occupations Agriculture 45.77%, agricultural labourer 27.32%, wage labourer 2.99%, commerce 9.38%, service 5.32% and others 9.22%.
Land use Total land under cultivation 33198 hectares, fallow land 2429 hectares; single crop land 15.24%, double crop 52.44% and treble crop land 32.32%; land under irrigation 17350 hectares.
Land control Among the peasants 40% are landless, 43% small, 7% intermediate and 10% rich.
Value of land The market value of the land of the first grade is Tk. 6500 per 0.01 hectare.
Main crops Paddy, jute, wheat, potato, tobacco, cotton and ginger. Extinct and nearly extinct crops Linseed, sesame, indigo, arahar, kaun, aus paddy and mustard seed.
Main fruits Jackfruit, mango, black berry, guava and banana.
Fisheries, dairies, poultries Dairy 11, poultry 41 and hatchery 6.
Communication facilities Roads: pucca 68 km, semi pucca 29 km and mud road 1445 km; railways 25.6 km.
Traditional transport Palanquin and bullock cart. These means of transport are either extinct or nearly extinct.
Manufactories Textile mill 1, ice cream factory 15, rice mill 56 and saw mill 8.
Cottage industries Bamboo work, wood work, blacksmith, tailoring, potteries and bidi.
Hats, bazars and fairs Hats and bazars are 9, most noted of which are Bhabaniganj, Darowani, Dhelapir, Panchapukur, Palashbari, Porardanga, and Shakhamacha Hat; fair 1 at Darwani (Syed Pagla Pir Mela).
Main exports Paddy, jute, cotton, tobacco and ginger.
NGO activities Operationally important NGOs are BRAC, ASA, CARE, RDRS, Grameen Krishi Foundation, RDSS, Nijera Kori, etc.
Health centres Zila sadar hospital 1, upazila health complex 1, TB hospital 1, TB clinic 1, leprosy hospital 2, upazila health and family planning centre 15.