Panchagarh Sadar Upazila (Panchgarh district) with an area of 347.08 sq km, is surrounded by Jalpaiguri district of West Bengal (India) on the north and east, Boda upazila on the south and Atrai upazila and Chapra thana of Purnea district (India) on the west.
Main rivers are Karatoya, Talma, Tangon and Chawai. Bhitrar-Shalmara is a notable beel. Shal forest of Bhitargarh and the government foresst on the banks of the Chawai and the Karatoya are notable.
Panchagarh Sadar (Town) Panchagarh municipality was established in 1985. It consists of 9 wards and 32 mahallas. The area of the town is 11.36 sq km. It has a population of 38550; male 51.22%, female 48.78%; density of population is 3393 per sq km. The literacy rate among the town people is 52.77%.
Administration Panchagarh thana was established under Jalpaiguri Zila of West Bengal during the British rule. It was under the Thakurgaon subdivision of Dinajpur district at the time of the partition of 1947 and had been a thana under Panchagarh subdivision since 1980. It consists of one municipality, 10 union parishads, 110 mouzas, 9 wards and 183 villages. Archaeological heritage Maharaja Dighi at Bhitargarh.
Historical events During the War of Liberation in 1971 the guerilla fighters demolished the bridge on the Chawai near the Amarkhana camp thereby obstructing the advance of the Pak-army towards the north. At the initial stage of the war Maqbul Darji and Badi Howladar (EPR) were killed in an encounter with the Pak army, which however lost eighteen of its soldiers.
Marks of War of Liberation Shaheed Farooque Ahmad memorial monument at Dhakka-mara in Panchagarh town; grave of the martyr freedom fighter Sakimuddin at Jagdal-hat in front of the Baital Aman Mosque.
Population 193198; male 51.3%, female 48.7%; Muslim 93.08%, Hindu 6.78%, others 0.14%
Religious institutions Mosque 44, temple 8.
Literacy and educational institutions Average literacy 34.7%; male 43.8%, female 25%.
Educational institutions: college (government) 2, (non-government) 3, high school (government) 2, high school (non-government) 48, junior high school 13, madrasa 57, primary school (government) 77, (non-government) 376, satellite school 3.
Newspapers and periodicals Pancharupa, Panchagarh Barta (weekly) (extinct), Ei Samay (fortnightly).
Cultural organisations Public library 2, club 3, cinema hall 4, art institute 1, auditorium 1, circuit house 1, stadium 1.
Main occupations Agriculture 40.38%, commerce 9.33%, agricultural labourer 27.13%, wage labourer 4.45%, service 7.42%, transport 2.22%, others 9.07%.
Land control Among the peasants, 60% are landless, 11% small peasant, 19% marginal, 5% intermediate, 5% rich; cultivable land per head 0.13 hectare.
Value of land The market value of the first grade arable land is Tk 1500 per 0.01 hectare. Main crops Paddy, jute, wheat, sugarcane, potato, chilli, onion.
Extinct and nearly extinct crops Savory, millet, tobacco, arahar (pulse), aus paddy, dhemsi.
Main fruits Mango, jackfruit, guava, banana, pomegranate, pineapple, custard apple, betel nut, watermelon.
Communication facilities Roads: roads and highway 30 km, pucca 45.8 km, semi pucca 10.25 km and mud road 1050 km; railway 8 km.
Traditional transport Horse, palanquin, bullock cart. These means of transport are either extinct or nearly extinct.
Manufactories Sugar mill 1, electric pole manufacturing industry 1, distillery 1, husking mill 55, saw mill 20, homeo laboratory 1.
Cottage industry Bamboo work 300, goldsmith 35, blacksmith 80, potteries 30, wood work 120. Hats, bazars and fairs Hats and bazars are 35.
Notable hats and bazars are Rajnagar, Jagdal, Jhalai, Harivaya, Model, Futkibari, Magura-dalua, Chakla, Goleha, Talma, Mirgarh, Ziabari, Tunir-hat, Dewan-hat, Kazir-hat.
Main exports Paddy, jute, betel nut, watermelon, wheat, sugar, electric pole, alcohol, bamboo and bamboo mat.