Rangpur Sadar Upazila (Rangpur district) with an area of 330.33 sq km, is surrounded by Gangachara upazila on the north, Mithapukur upazila on the south, Kaunia and Pirghacha upazilas on the east, Taraganj and Badarganj upazilas on the west.
Main rivers are Tista and Ghaghat.
Rangpur Sadar (Town) stands on the bank of the river Ghaghat. It consists of 15 wards and 109 mahallas. The town was turned into a municipality in 1869. It has an area of 42.57sq km. The population of the municipality is 251699; male 52.31%, female 47.69%. The density of population is 5913 per sq km. Literacy rate among the town people is 54.6%.
Administration Rangpur Sadar thana, now an upazila, was established in 1877. The upazila consists of one municipality, 15 wards, 12 union parishads, 207 mouzas and 311 villages.
Archaeological heritage and relics Tajhat Rajbari, Keramatia Mosque, Dimlaraj Kali Mandir, Sree Sree Karunamaye Kali Mandir, Rangpur Museum, Rangpur Town Hall, Rangpur Public Library, Pareshnath Mandir at Mahiganj, tomb of Maulana Keramat Ali Jainpuri, tomb of Shah Jalal Bokheri at Mahiganj, CARMICHAEL COLLEGE Building, home stead of ROQUIAH SAKHAWAT HOSSAIN at Pairabandh, Zila Parishad Building.
Population 494317; male 52.44%, female 47.56%; Muslim 89.40%, Hindu 10.23% and others 0.37%; ethnic nationals: Santal and Oraon.
Religious institutions Mosque 380, temple 35, church 2, tomb 5 and sacred place 1.
Literacy and educational institutions Average literacy 37.4%; male 43.9% and female 30.1%.
Educational institutions: college 17, medical college 1, technical college 1, teacher's training college 1, cadet college 1, PTI 1, high school 58, junior high school 5, madrasa 72, government primary school 149, non-government primary school 73, kindergarten 18, satellite school 18 and NGO operated school 120 and community school 15.
Noted Educational institutions: Rangpur Zila School (1832), Carmichael University College (1916), Rangpur Girl's High School (1876).
Locally published newspapers and periodicals Dabanal (1980), Juger Alo (1992), Dainik Paribesh (1994), Dainik Rangpur (1997), Weekly Atal (1991), Rangpur Barta (1996); extinct: Rangapur Bartabaha (1847), Rangapur Darpan (1907), Uttar Bangla (1960), Pravati (1955).
Cultural organisations Club 181, public library 2, cinema hall 7, theatre group 6, theatre stage 1, museum 1 and literary society 3.
Main occupations Agriculture 24.71%, agricultural labourer 19.39%, wage labourer 4.81%, commerce 17.91%, service 14.94%, transport 5.93% and others 12.31%.
Land use Total cultivable land 24090 hectares; fallow land 7817 hectares; single crop 15.88%, double crop 65.40% and treble crop land 18.72%; land under irrigation 63.13%.
Land control Among the peasants 42% are landless, 27% small, 21% intermediate and 10% rich; cultivable land per head 0.08 hectare.
Value of land The market value of the land of the first grade is Tk. 7500 per 0.01 hectare.
Main crops Paddy, jute, wheat, potato, onion, garlic, ginger, chilli, sugarcane and tobacco. Extinct or nearly extinct crops Linseed, sesame, indigo, kaun, aus paddy.
Main fruits Mango, jackfruit, black berry, papaya and banana. Fisheries, poultries Poultry 40, fishery 20 and hatchery 9.
Communication facilities Roads: pucca 191 km, semi pucca 15 km and mud road 580 km. Traditional transport Palanquin (extinct), bullock cart (nearly extinct).
Manufactories Rangpur Foundry Limited, RK Fan, RV Oil Mill, Rahatin Industries. Other manufactories include rice and flour mill, saw mill, ice factory, printing press, lathe machine and welding.
Cottage industries Bamboo work 180, goldsmith 40, blacksmith 70, potteries 125, wood work 120, tailoring 270 and bidi 30.
Hats, bazars and fairs Hats and bazars are 18, most noted of which are Lalbagh, Burir Hat, Nandiganj, Parla Pir Hat Bus Terminal Hat; fairs 4, Rath Mela at Mahiganj, Bara Dardah Mela and Tajhat Mela are noted.
Main exports Paddy, wheat, sugarcane, ginger, tobacco and vegetables.
NGO activities Operationally important NGOs are Brac, ASA, RDRS, Grameen Bank, Care,
Health centres Medical college hospital 1, zila sadar hospital 1, T B hospital 1, eye hospital 1, union health and family welfare centre 10, charitable dispensary 1, municipal medical centre 1, maternity and child welfare centre 1.