Ranisankail Upazila (Thakurgaon district) with an area of 287.59 sq km, is surrounded by Baliadangi and Thakurgaon Sadar upazilas, and West Bengal of India on the north,Pirganj upazila (Thakurgaon) and West Bengal of India on the south, Pirganj upazila on the east, Haripur upazila on the west.
Main rivers are Kulic,Nagar and Timai.
Ranikankail (Town) consists of five mouzas. The area of the town is 13.94 sq km. The town has a population of 13521; male 52.09%, female 47.91%; population density per sq km 970. Literacy rate among the town people is 36.9%.
Administration Ranisankail thana, now an upazila, was established in 1837. It consists of five union parishads, 122 mouzas and 122 villages.Archaeological heritage and relics Palace of Raja Tonkonath (Malduar), palace of Raja Birendranath at Jagadal, tomb (Mughal period) of Nekmardan Pir Shah Nasiruddin (R), Goraksanath Mandir, Ramrai Dighi, Bangla Garh, Rani Dighi and Shiva Dighi.Marks of the War of Liberation A mass killing site near Khunia Dighi.
Population 156107; male 51.67%, female 48.33%. Muslim 76.23%, Hindu 22.79%, Christian 0.30% and others 0.98%; ethnic nationals: Santal 537 families.
Religious institutions Mosque 463, temple 20, church 5, tomb 1.
Literacy and educational institutions Average literacy 25.7%; male 35.3% and female 15.3%.
Educational Institutions: college 4, high school 41, junior high school 5, madrasa 11, primary school 131, community school 8.
Noted educational institutions: Ranisankail Pilot High School (1913), Nekmarda High School (1932), Ranisankail Model Government Primary School (1917).
Cultural organisations Rural club 62, cinema hall 4, theatre group 1, opera party 1, women's co operative society 102.
Main occupations Agriculture 53.7%, agricultural labourer 28.52%, wage labourer 2.59%, commerce 6.41%, service 2.41% and others 6.37%.
Land use Total cultivable land 22405.09 hectares; fallow land 6115.74; single crop 30%, double crop 55% and treble crop 15%; cultivable land under irrigation 69%.
Land control Among the peasants 3.43% are landless, 14.01% marginal, 12.78% small, 64.59% intermediate and 5.19% rich; cultivable land per head 0.13 hectare.
Value of land The market value of the land of the first grade is approximately Tk. 4000 per 0.01 hectare.
Main crops Paddy, wheat, potato, pulses, karalla and vegetables.Extinct or nearly extinct crops Jute, kalai and aus paddy.
Main fruits Mango, jackfruit, papaya, litchi, watermelon and banana.Dairies, poultries Poultry 3, dairy 5.
Communication facilities Roads: pucca 62 km, semi pucca 3 km and mud road 486 km.
Traditional transport Palanquin (extinct), bullock cart (nearly extinct), boat.
Manufactories Husking mill 75, oil mill 5, biscuit factory 8, ice factory 2, saw mill 5, welding 11.
Cottage industries Bamboo work 31, jute work 38, goldsmith 17, blacksmith 9, wood work 162 and tailoring 220.
Hats, bazars and fairs Hats and bazars are 30, most noted of which are Nekmarda, Katihar, Routnagar, Balidara, Ranisankail College Bazar; fair 2 (Nekmarda Urs Mela and Katihar Maghi Mela).
Main exports Paddy, rice, potato, pulses, vegetables, mango, jackfruit, litchi, watermelon.
NGO activities Operationally important NGOs are BRAC, RDRS,GRAMEEN BANK, Grameen Krishi Foundation, CDA.
Health centres Upazila health complex 1, union family welfare centre 5.