Sylhet Sadar Upazila (Sylhet district) with an area of 517.43 sq km, is surrounded by Companiganj, Gowainhat and Jaintiapur upazilas on the north, Balaganj and Fenchuganj upazilas on the south, Jaintiapur and Golabganj upazilas on the east, Chhatak and Bishwanath upazilas on the west.
Main rivers: Surma and Kushiyara; Baraya and Daldali haors are notable. The upazila is enriched with forest and mineral resources.
Sylhet Sadar (Town) consists of 27 wards and 210 mahallas. The area of the town is 10.49 sq. km. It has a population of 285308; male 54.68%, female 45.32%; density of population is 27198 per sq km. Literacy rate among the town people is 66.9%.
Administration Sylhet thana, now an upazila, was established in 1878. The upazila consists of one municipality, 23 union parishads, 84 mouzas and 689 villages.
Archaeological heritage Stone inscription of the tomb of Shah Jalal ( R), Ghardoar Nawabi Mosque, statue made of kasti pathor (touchstone) at Bishwamvar Akhra, stone inscription of Shahi Eid-gah, Kreen Bridge.Marks of War of Liberation Mass killing site: Sylhet Cadet College, Civil Surgeon's Bungalow, Laltila, Uriatila, Khadimnagar and Sheikh Burhanuddin Road; mass grave: Zindabazar, Police Line, Malnichara Tea Garden, Cadet College and Sallatikar; memorial sculpture at Jalalabad Cantonment.
Religious institutions Sheikh Sunaullah Mosque, Nababi Mosque, Dargah Mosque, Kudratullah Mosque, Shahparan Mosque, Abu Turab Mosque; Shib Mandir of Gotatik, Kalighat Kali Mandir, Sath Sanga Vihar, Ramkrisna Mission and Math, Volanandagiri Ashram; Presbyterian Church (1897), church at Nayasarak, Surma Market Church; tombs of Hazrat Shah Jalal (R), Hazrat Shah Poran ( R), Garam Dewan, Madhu Shahid, Panch Pir, Zindah Pir; Satir Pithasthan and Jainpur Pithasthan are two notable sacred places.
Population 554412; male 52.51%, female 47.49%; Muslim 91.26%, Hindu 7.43%, Buddhist, Christian and others 0.31%; ethnic nationals: Khasi and Monipuri and Patra caste.Literacy and educational institutions Average literacy 50.6%; male 57.2%, female 44.0%.
Noted educational institutions: Sylhet Government Pailot High School (1836), Raja Jimi High School (1886), MC College (1889), Sylhet Sanskrit College (1902), Sylhet Government Agragami Girl's High School ((1903), Model High School (1932), Government Madan Mohan College (1940), The Aided High School (1942), Kishori Mohan Girls' School (1944), Sylhet Government Aalia Madrasa (1948), MAG Osmany Medical College (1975), Sylhet Cadet College, Shahjalal University of Science & Technology (1987).
Newspapers and periodicals Dailies: Sylheter Dak, Jalalabad, Manchitra, Yeugaveri, Sylhet Bani; extinct: Shrihatta Prakash (1875), Paridarshak (1875-80), Srihattamihir (1889), Shrihattabasi (1895), Janashakti (1920), Gyanannesan (1931), Jagaran (1938), Al-Jalal (1941), Sylhet Samachar (1977), Sylhet Kantha (1981), Weekly Jalalabad (1982), Daily Jalalabadi (1984), Sylhet Bani (1987), Daily Sylhet Sanglap (1991), Daily Sudin (1992), Aajker Sylhet (1992), Aajker Viswa Sangbad (1992).
Cultural orgainisation Public library 2, museum 3, cinema hall 8, theatre stage 2, theatre group 2, women's organisation 2.
Main occupations Agriculture 16.84%, fishing 1.99%, agricultural labourer 10.59%, wage labourer 5.08%, commerce 21.48%, transport 4.62%, construction 2.92%, service 15.23%, others 21.25%.
Land use Tilas are used for tea gardening and rubber plantation, and the plain land used for paddy cultivation; single crop 40%, double crop 45% and triple crop 15%. Arable land under irrigation 65%.
Value of land Market value of the first grade agricultural land is about Tk 49500 per 0.01 hectare.
Main crops Paddy, tea, potato, brinjal, patal, onion, garlic, betel leaf. Extinct and nearly extinct crops Tisi (linseed), Til,(sesame), mustard, yam, kaun (Italian millet), Jaldhup pineapple, black pepper are nearly extinct.
Main fruits Pineapple, orange, pomegranate, lemon, katbel (elephant apple). Fisheries, dairies, poultries Fishery 25, poultry 70, hatchery 10.
Communication facilities Roads: pucca 56 km, semi pucca 8 km and mud road 375 km; railways 49.07 km. One airport, recently it has been upgraded to international status.
Traditional transport Palanquin, horse carriage, bullock cart, thapa (cane-chair fitted on the head of a porter) and hand pulling cart. These means of transport are extinct or nearly extinct.
Manufactories About 50 manufactories including textile mills, ice factories, flourmills, etc.
Cottage industries Weaving 50, bamboo and cane work 300, goldsmith 1000, blacksmith 200, potteries 700, wood work 800, tailoring 2000, bidi factory 5, welding 50.
Mineral resource Natural Gas.
Main hats, bazars and fairs Noted Hats ans Bazars are Kazir Bazar, Bandar Bazar, Brahmamaiye Bazar, Kalighat Bazar, Lal Bazar, Rikabi Bazar, Mira Bazar, Zinda Bazar, Shibganj Bazar, Shahparan Bazar, Khadimnagar Bazar, Bateshwar Bazar, Salutikar Bazar, Islampur Bazar.
Noted fairs are Manipuri Rajbari Mela, Rathjatra Mela, Chaitra Mela, Maharram Mela (Shahi Idgah).
Main exports Natural gas, tea, betel leaf, orange, dry fish, Manipuri handloom products, bamboo & cane furniture, shital pati.
NGO activities Brac, ASA, , Care, , FIVDB, CARE, Sylhet Samaj Kalyan Sanggstha, Brikshmachaiya, Samadhan, Reporting Media etc.
Health centres Government health centre 5, private hospitals/clinic 50, family planning centre 5.